International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration
Volume 3, Issue 5, July 2017, Pages 44-49
Social Rehabilitation for Commercial Sex Worker, is it Still Significant
Department of Communication, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Abstract: The rising of commercial sex workers or prostitutes requires the government todevelop policies and implement a countermeasure that are comprehensive and integrated, both law enforcement to reduce the supply (supply reduction) as well as a welfare approach to suppress and overcome the rate of the number of prostitutes in Indonesia. In reality, all the attempts to overcome the issue remain difficult to achieve an optimal result. The problem lies in the limited range and ability of government, and in addition to the complexity of the issue surrounding prostitution. One of the government policy in prostitution problem is to enter the prostitutes who caught in raids that conducted by the government into social institutions that will rehabilitate prostitutes into a new person. The rehabilitation process conduct through for 3-6 months after the raids, a series of rehabilitation activities are aimed at restoring WBS into a normative life and livelihood in the community, either within the family, community, or the lanes of employment and entrepreneurship. Generally, a rehabilitation center has policy programs in the form of the preparation stage, the planting and control awareness stage, the expansion of knowledge stage, the channeling and directing stage, the monitoring stage, and the evaluation stage. These programs certainly expected to change the concept of self and create normative life and prevent them to return to their former job. But in fact, prostitutes who have completed various rehabilitation programs and has been out of rehabilitation center most likely returned to become prostitutes. This means, the purpose of the implementation of the policy program have not reached its full potential. It can be caused by a policy program that has not been implemented properly or even not run at all. This study aims to analyze the programs and policies implemented by the only prostitute rehabilation center in North Sumatra, namely Technical Services Unit (UPT) Social Services Prostitutes “Parawasa” as well as to identify the success of the policy implemented program. Data collection techniques in this research was conducted through interviews and observation and using the qualitative analysis method. This study is conducted over two years, the first year, research subjects was all residents (WBS) and the staff of UPT Social Services prostitutes “Parawasa” and the second year research subjects is a former prostitute who has completed the rehabilitation of UPT Social Services for commercial sex worker “Parawasa”. This research is expected to contribute to enhancing the success of the government’s policy program. In addition, this study is also expected to provides information to the public about their social institutions which rehabilitate the prostitutes, increase the prostitute trust towards social rehabilitation and the prostitutes can receive the government policy program that is applied to it, and to increase public confidence of social rehabilitation center so that society can feel receptive the prostitute back on his social life.
Keywords: Policy Program, Social Rehabilitation, Commercial Sex Worker.
There are many cultures that force women eventually become a commercial sex worker. Koentjoro (2004) mentioned in his research that was conducted in Indramayu, there is a culture that considers job as a prostitute is good and supported by parents and families. In fact, the family held a salvation called „slametan‟ for their child to get a lot of customers and be able to send money to family back at home. Prostitution also arose as a result of social definition in society that a woman is an object of sex and it causes a partial and bias handling in the search for the solution. The demands of society to eliminate the existence of prostitution on the one hand is very tightly phrased, while on the other hand public is also not ready to find a practical way out when the brothel is dissolved.
Data recorded in the figures in 2006, commercial sex workers (female) reached a number of 240.000 and 30 percents of Indonesian prostitutes are children under the age of 18 years (Jakarta Province Social Services, 2006). Social Services of North Sumatera Province also noted that in 2006 there were 3.387 prostitutes in the North Sumatera and the number is still increasing in subsequent years, where in 2007 there were 3.678 prostitutes that are mostly located in the city of Medan (BPS, North Sumatera in figures 2007; Sumatera in figures 2007).
The rising of commercial sex workers or prostitutes requires the Provincial Government to develop policies and implement a countermeasure that are comprehensive and integrated, both law enforcement to reduce the supply (supply reduction) as well as a welfare approach to suppress and overcome the rate of the number of prostitutes in Indonesia. In reality, all the attempts to overcome the issue remain difficult to achieve an optimal result. The problem lies in the limited range and ability of government, and in addition to the complexity of the issue surrounding prostitution. The increasing of prostitutes cases and the raising number of prostitutes is directly connected to the mental health of community as well as the accumulation of various social problems and personality. Departing from this case, handling things with community-based has a very important meaning. It was founded a Technical Implementing Unit in North Sumatera, a social rehabilitation institute of immoral named “Parawasa” located in the village called Ray, district of Berastagi, which was inaugurated in 1977 by the Head of District level II. The existence of Parawasa is regulated and determined by the decision of the Governor of North Sumatera on the duty position and function of Organizational Structure of Social Institutions in the Department of North Sumatera Province No. 061.297.K/Year 2002. The Initial Approach In Rehabilitation Programs of Parawasa Social Service Unit of Prostitutes.
The initial approach is an activity that aims to gain recognition, support, assistance, andparticipation in implementing the program, including efforts to obtain an overview of potential and resources available in the community. The initial approach also detect the presence and how to get potential WBS. Initial approach phase activities include: orientation and consulting activities, identification, motivation, and selection. In the practical, the new prostitute will join the Parawasa social service unit and will undergo and interview process conducted by the social workers in private. The interview aims to identify and select the prostitutes who will be the WBS in the institution. Each WBS is interviewed by at least one social worker, but if the results of the interview is consider doubtful, then WBS will be interviewed by 2 to 4 people of social workers and take up to 7-10 days.
All this is done for the result of the identification and selection is truly based on facts and not just some composition of the WBS candidates alone. This selection process will determine whether theprostitutes will be the WBS in the Parawasa social service unit or be repatriated. Madam Sion explains:
“many of them (prostitutes) who don‟t want to admit that they were a prostitute when first being interviewed. They usually admit as the victims of wrongful arrests, and many assortment excuses. But later when being interviewed for the second time, will be a different story to be told. Well, we want to see whether all the information is conveyed correctly and consistently. We will do the interview until they speak the truth.”
The Resocialization And Recovery of Prostitutes In The Parawasa Social Service Unit.
Resocialization is a series of guidance activities which tend the two-way, that on the one hand to prepare WBS in order to fully integrate into the normative livelihoods, and on the other hand to prepare the community, especially the original region of community environment at the location where they’ll be sent to work so that they can be well accepted and integrate with community activities. But in reality, the WBS in Parawasa social service unit don’t get the activities that can prepare them to fully reintegrate into society, as well as the efforts to enable the community to receive, treat well, and invite the ex-prostitutes to reintegrate in the community activities.
A series of activities are aimed at restoring WBS into a normative life and livelihood in the community, either within the family, community, or the lanes of employment and entrepreneurship. In the application in the Parawasa social service unit, the WBS who has ended the rehabilitation is only strived to be able to return to the family and get employed or being an entrepreneur. The effort of returning them to their family is by only allowing the family concerned to pick up them at the institution. While the effort for them to obtain an employment, apart from the skills training in the institution, they will be given a venture capital by the institution.
The majority of education of the WBS in the Parawasa social service unit during the period ofMay to July 2016 was 25% (9 people) elementary, middle/equivalent amounted to 33.33% (12 people), and high/equivalent amounted to 41.67% (15 people). The WBS usually came from the result of the sweeping by municipal officer and North Sumatera Regional Police (Polda Sumatera Utara). However, there are several WBS coming from the Social Services since the agency do not have a safe house as their shelter.
Model of Communication Used by The Technical Implementing Unit of Parawasa Social Services.
In the everyday activities, social workers, staffs, or other experts interact with WBS (Warga Binaan Sosial: The Citizens of Social Patronage) through intermediaries of the class president more. Although sometimes social workers do without the intermediaries, but the average interaction between the two sides through the intermediaries. The class president will be the one who deliver instructions and information that come from social workers, staff and other experts to WBS. The elected WBS as the class president is the first WBS entering the institution, or can be called as a senior. In addition, the class president was chosen by looking the leadership in them and who can easily blend in with others. The duties of the class president are imparting instructions and information from the staff and employees of the institution and to lead the entire WBS in the execution of daily activities in the shelter.
A social worker named Ganepo explained: “later when they enter we shall see who will roughly to lead friends and blend well, that‟s what makes them class president. As well as the new class president, we saw her as the most diligent, without being ordered she would wash the dishes. We thought that this kind of person who can lead, with the hope of giving a good example and the other WBS could follow her. We also noticed that she could blend in well and thought „she can lead‟. Later if we have any information and instruction for them, we could deliver it through her. The class president is also the leader in activities. For example, when it is meal time, she’s the one who lead the way for her friends to the dining room, so does for other activities.”
Figure 1: International Communication
Sources: Parawasa Social Servis Unit of Protitutes
The interaction between the employee, the nursing staffs and the WBS, either through the class president intermediaries or not, only transpire in one way (linear). Employees and staffs can provide information and instructions to WBS, but WBS can only accept and implement the information or instruction without giving any feedback or comment. It applies on very much every activity, except when it comes to the initial round of interview, counseling, and personal interactions. Likewise, with the other experts as instructors of cookery, sewing instructors, teachers, and so on, who usually only provide the material that should be delivered without asking for any response from the WBS. Meanwhile, in interacting with the WBS‟ families, officers and staffs conduct a two-way communication (international). If the WBS‟ families came to visit, usually officers and staffs receive them well, ask the need of visiting, whom they want to meet with, and where they come from. Families can also ask about anything related to the institution, like asking the time needed for their child or relatives to undergo the rehabilitation there. Then, if the family comes indeed during visiting hours, they can meet the relevant WBS directly. When WBS rehabilitation period will soon be over, the institution will contact the family to pick up the WBS and notify any administrative requirements that need to be fulfilled before the WBS can go out of the institution. Based on the elaboration mentioned above, it can be seen that the communication model contained in the Social Services Unit of prostitutes “Parawasa” is as follows Communication model in the Social Services Unit of prostitutes “Parawasa” (Figure 1)
Effectiveness of Communication Model In Parawasa Social Services Unit of Prostitutes
According to Joseph A. DeVito (Liliweri, 1991: 13) the characteristics of effective interpersonal communication should have the presenceof openness, empathy, supportiveness, positiveness and equality. Five of these characteristics will be explained below. Openness becomes quite difficult to obtain from WBS in Parawasa Social Services Unit of Prostitutes. In the early days of rehabilitation, the WBS are reluctant to share the real information about themselves. Just imagine, to get to know their original identity only already takes several interview stages and takes up to 7-10 days. For a more effective and efficient way of the opening processes, the social workers and the staffs of Parawasa social service unit should be more open byintroducing themselves, explaining the intent and purpose of the interview, also the intent and purposes of the WBS fostered in the institution. In addition, social workers and the nursing staffs should also give an honest reaction, not just keep on silent, and not being judgmental to the information given by the WBS. Based on the results of interviews and observations in the field, social workers and the nursing staffs in Parawasa rarely show empathy towards WBS who are undergoing rehabilitation. Whereas, in interpersonal communication, especially in the rehabilitation process, it takes empathy from the social workers and the nursing staffs in order to WBS feel more comfortable in opening themselves and communicating the problem, empathy can be created and perceived by WBS when the social worker and staff do the following: show interest in the viewpoint of WBS, be patience and not interrupt when the WBS is conveying information or tell a story, be calm despite the capturing an expression of strong emotion, be free of prejudice and or evaluative – unless it is necessary, and show the attitude of understanding.
Attitudes of support only shown through the advice given by the social workers and the nursing staff to WBS at certain moments. Yet a variety of other things can be done by them as a demonstration of support, such as: descriptive attitude that convey the perceptions and feelings of the WBS without judging and does not condemn, encouraging to cooperate in finding a solution but does not dictating, be honest and does not show a latent motives attitude, as well as reviewing their own opinion and is willing to admit mistakes if there‟s one. A positive attitude is also supposed to exist within WBS themselves, which is accepting themselves as an important and valuable to others, have confidence in their own ability to address the issues, sensitive to others‟ needs and the social norms. However, this kind of attitudes has not been demonstrated by the social workers and the nursing staffs as well as WBSSimilar with DeVito, Stafford and Canary (in Floyd 2012:291) explains there are five things essentials to create effective relationship and communication:
1.Positiviy (Positive Sense)
The positive attitude shown by the officers can create an atmosphere of comfort so that the effect on the effectiveness of communication and rehabilitation programs that are running. A positive attitude can be shown by showing the vagaries of friendly, caring for others and sensitive to the needs of others. If the officer shows a positive attitude in the communication process, then by itself WBS will likely be the same. So that it can support the realization of effective rehabilitation.
The officers and Citizens assisted expected to discuss openly their thoughts and needs about the rehabilitation process that is running. This situation can be started with the officers started a comfortable situtation and openly speaks their thoughts and his feelings and always involves citizens assisted in determining the decisions on the rehabilitation process. Then assisted the citizens expected ¸ can be more active in conveying feelings and aspiration.
Both officer dan WBS need to show commitment to each other in the process of rehabilitation programs. For example, certainty can be shown by the officer who gave the welcoming attitude so WBS feel an assurance that they can come to the officer without feeling reluctant, when getting in trouble the process of rehabilitation
4. Social networking
The two parties who want to create the effectiveness of communication and good relations, needs mutual understanding about social environment for each other. In this case, the officer is expected to accept the background of WBS as a prostitute, never show the attitude of streotype and does not indicate a negative stigma.
5. Sharing Tasks
In building an interaction, it takes effort from each side to understand the position and task of each other. In conditions of rehabilitation Parawasa for example, if the officers expects rehabilitation program runs smoothly, then they must start to create an interesting program to follow and think of the needs of WBS. As for WBS, their task is expected to join the program rehabilitation seriously and wholeheartedly so the effective result can be achieved.
Figure 2: The recommended model for effective communication for the Parawasa Social Service Unit.
Essential things to do solution for obstacle
4. Conclusion and Recommendations
Model of communication used in teh Parawasa social service unit are a linear model of communication and interactional communication model. The interaction between the workers, staffs, other experts with rhe WBS is a one-way communication (linear), the process is workers and staffs provide information and instructions to the WBS through class president, then the class president forward it to others without any feedback or response. Meanwhile, the interaction between the workers, staffs and other experts with the WBS family is a two-way communication (interactional). The process is both parties can give questions or answers and other interactions that produce feedback or response from both sides. The environmental look at the prostitutes profession as something low. Religious education, family at home, and school environment form a negative image against prostitutes. It is also added with the support of mass media. The negative stigma turns visible also in the model of communication that occurs in the social service unit. In the rehabilitation process, the voice of WBS who is formerly a prostitutes consider unimportant and not being heard, so that the WBS is unable to express feelings and thoughts. WBS as the important part of the rehabilitation is rarely involved in determining what activities and regulations that are considered good or bad for them. WBS used to take for granted all that has been set by the workers, staffs and other experts. Although sometimes there are some that doesn’t match with their comfort and desire, there’s no effort from the WBS to express it.
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