International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration
Volume 4, Issue 4, May 2018, Pages 56-60
The Development of Quality Management System ISO 9001
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Pasundan, Bandung, Indonesia
Abstract: This research aims to develop quality management system ISO 9001. The result of an introductory study in analyzing the existing condition of the management system of Pasundan School of Economic Bandung has not been optimal because it is assumed that the ISO 9001 quality management system has not been implemented in stating vision and mission. Based on the phenomenon above, the problems are formulated as follows: How to make The Design of ISO 9001 Quality Management System; the quality guidelines; the standard operating procedure; the job description and work instruction; and make an internal evaluation to suit ISO 9001 quality system. The method used in this study is Research and Design which intends to develop new skills or new approaches and to solve the problems in implementing directly in actual fields. The study findings show that School of Economic Pasundan Bandung has a design of quality management system ISO 9001:2008.
Keywords: ISO 9001:2008, Quality, Management, Quality management system
In an effort to increase human resources, the role of education is quite prominent. Therefore it is essential for national development to focus on improving the quality of education. Qualified education will be obtained in a qualified school and it will produce qualified human resources as well. Based on the curriculum in Indonesia, they are already represented in the Law No. 20 of the year 2003 about National Education System Chapter X about Curriculum, Article 36, 37 and 38. However, the interpretation and implementation of the curriculum by the education provider from basic education, secondary and higher education still not reflect the mandate/objectives of Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System. One possible solution to improve the quality of human resources in Indonesia is to adopt and implement Law No. 20 of 2003 about National Education System. University according to its name is the highest education level that produces scientists in various fields of science.
According to Gaspersz (2008), every business person who wants to win the competition in the industry will give full attention to quality. That implies organizational determined by internal and external resources to explore the heterogeneity of valuable resources (Wernerfelt, 1984; Jarvenpaa and Leidner, 1998; Wagner, 2006; Sidharta and Affandi, 2016; Machmud and Sidharta, 2016). As states by Psomas, Pantouvakis and Kafetzopoulos (2013) that the service and operational performance quality are significantly influenced by ISO 9001 effectiveness. When world-class universities were emerging, the desire to be the best part in the world of education spurred by a government program, which seeks to encourage at least 25 universities to be a university with International Standard. Then we got to know several methods of ranking that are still often used as a reference for the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) from Shanghai Jia Tong University, the Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) QS World Universities Rankings (THES-QS), Webometrics Ranking of World Universities (WRWU), and Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities (SPWU) from National Taiwan University.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is the world standards agency formed to increase international trade related to the change of goods and services (Psomas, Pantouvakis and Kafetzopoulos, 2013). ISO is a non-governmental agency which consists of 140 national standards agencies and was founded in Switzerland in 1917. Early establishment of the ISO, because of the “technical barriers to trade” caused the dissimilarity standard in many countries. ISO quality standard was first published in 1987, revised in 1994, 2000 and 2008. The newest standards is “ISO 9001: 2008 Standards” (Lee, To and Yu, 2009; BS EN ISO 9001 : 2008). Improving the quality of service with reference to the international standard known as Quality Management System based on ISO lately become the focus of attention of many public organizations. ISO is the International Standards Organization presents in some series. Public services such as libraries can use the ISO 9001-2004 series, which in November 2008 was out the latest series ISO 9001: 2008. Implementing a QMS ISO will provide many positive effects, especially for universities.
With so many colleges certified with ISO 9001, it means university management is excellent (Sârbu et al., 2009). Therefore, for colleges which have not been certified, ISO 9001 standards may be implemented. One of these universities in Bandung that has not implemented the ISO 9001 is the School of Economic Pasundan Bandung, Indonesia.
2. Objectives of the Study
Based on the phenomena that occur in the field, the management system has been implemented, but the optimal implementation of the management system has not been shown. Therefore, it would require a Quality Management System ISO 9001. Next entity is the lecturer, in this case, the lecturers also contributed to managerial process in School of Economic Pasundan Bandung, in education and administration. And then human resources are administrative personnel who run the organization in accordance with job descriptions that set of School of Economic Pasundan Bandung, manage all the resources or the entity to become a management system that runs the procedure to be able to carry out the vision, mission and goals of School of Economic Pasundan Bandung as higher educational institutions that should always be able to improve the quality of management in order to become an institution of higher education that has competence. It is demanding School of Economic Pasundan Bandung to continue to improve the quality.
If the quality of the quality management system of education School of Economic Pasundan Bandung is not optimal, it will cause various problems including decline in student interest, efficiency of the learning process, percentage of passing grades, resulting in late graduation, inefficient management that cannot keep up with the time progress, quality graduation, lower level of trust of stakeholders and dissatisfaction of customers.
Design and development, production, installation, and service is often referred to as the Quality Management System ISO 9001 (Rao, Ragu-Nathan, and Solis, 1997). QMS ISO 9001 is one of the series ISO 9000 governing Quality Management System so that ISO 9001 is often called the Series 9001. QMS ISO 9001:1994 is more focused on manufacturing process and very difficult to apply to small business organization because of the many procedures that must be met, as expressed by Rao, Ragu-Nathan, and Solis (1997), the application of ISO requires organization’s processes undergo continuous improvement even after the ISO certification has been achieved. Because of this limitation, the technical committees undertake a review of the existing standard until the revised ISO 9001:2000 was issued, which is a combination of the ISO 9001, 9002, 9003 and 1994 versions.
As stated by Yoo et al., (2006) that the understanding of the expectations of customers by supplying an input to make improvements and improved quality of products, goods, and services. Customers will compare them with other service products. When expectations are met, it will make customers loyal, satisfied with the goods or services purchased. Conversely, if not satisfied, the supplier will be abandoned by the customer. This is in line with the opinion by Feng, Terziovski and Samson (2007) which suggests that the quality is a dynamic condition related to products, services, people, processes, and environments that meet or exceed expectations. Related to the above opinion, Kaynak (2003) and Al-Refaie, Ghnaimat and Ko (2011) and Mulyawan and Sidharta (2014) argue that to create customer satisfaction, an institution/organization must be able to meet the needs of consumers who are considered to be most important. Based on both the above opinion, the customer satisfaction is at the customer’s expectations of a product. Customers will be satisfied if the products they consume in accordance with the customer wants of the product.
As Briscoe, Fawcett and Todd (2005) argue that the formal organization is a planned structure and a deliberate attempt to establish a pattern of relationships between the various components that can reach the target effectively. Formal structure is usually the result of a decision-making explicit and prescriptive blueprint on how many activities have to be connected. Usually, it is a mold-map and published in organization’s manual, position description, and other formal documents. Although the formal structure of the entire system is not an organization, it is very important. It sets the general framework and outlines the functions and responsibilities of specific responsibilities and relationships among them. Anyone participating in an organization will recognize that there are many interactions that are not defined by formal structures. Informal organizations are aspects of the system that are not explicitly planned but arise spontaneously from the activities and interactions of the participants.
These informal relationships are vital to the effectiveness of the organization. Different groups often develop spontaneous tools for important activities that assist in the overall performance. If a formal organization is slow to respond to external and internal forces, it must develop informal relationships to address these new problems. Thus, organizations can adapt and carry out the functions of the updates that are not met adequately by a formal structure. Conversely, sometimes informal relationships may interfere the achievement of the target, for example, if the working group worked slowly or sabotaged the production.
Based on the above phenomenon, the formulation of the problem is as for how to make a quality manual, standard operating procedures, job description and work instruction in School of Economic Pasundan Bandung. The objective is to create a quality manual, standard operating procedures, job description and work instruction of School of Economic Pasundan Bandung. So that the benefits of this research is to contribute to the study and development of science in international quality management system standards organization (ISO) 9001 that can be used as a reference for future studies, a study of analyzing more deeply for other related variables so that discover all arising aspects, improve the quality management system and customer satisfaction and have a quality management standard ISO 9001 in School of Economic Pasundan Bandung to improve the quality of higher education and support the accelerated achievement of the vision, mission, goals and objectives as targeted.
The type of research used is the type of research design, namely action research. Action research aims to develop new skills or new approaches and ways to solve problems with direct application in the workplace or another actual world. As a subject, research is design to make the right system to apply to the object of research. The system here is the international quality management system (ISO) 9001, which is to improve the quality management and customer satisfaction. It is focused on the School of Economic Pasundan Bandung, Indonesia. To facilitate this research, the parameter used is an element of Academia, Books (Design, Quality Manual, Standard Operating Procedure, Job Description and Work Instruction) and Quality Management.
4. Result and Discussion
Based on the description of the phenomenon and the results of the above study and in accordance with the opinion of 4 key informant interviews and focus group results that draft outlines ISO 9001 QMS can make a positive contribution towards improving the quality of the environment management of School of Economic Pasundan Bandung. The design of QMS ISO 9001:2008 of School of Economic Pasundan Bandung can drive faculty in developing the content and quality of the teaching process, create a standard benchmark for the performance of lecturers and has a guide in the development of self-faculty expertise. Level employees, higher education institutions in the managerial QMS ISO 9001:2008 of School of Economic Pasundan Bandung can provide clarity of tasks and authority, creating job satisfaction because systems and procedures work well, and belief in the truth of the way of handling the job. It is also in line with research conducted by Michalska-Ćwiek (2009) which states that all the structural work in the college based on the Quality Management System ISO 9001: 2008 through the use of some of the quality manual, standard procedures, work instructions, and documentation. The results of the use of a standard quality manual and procedures led to increasing work efficiency 59 to accomplish the mission as a world-class university.
Judging from its benefits, customers will receive academic services which are more focused and targeted; students can engage in the process of continuous quality improvement, pride owned by students that can study on the credible institution and international standards. The student satisfaction will increase with the adoption of the draft of ISO 9001:2008 in a college. It is also in line with the results of a survey conducted by the CPC in 2010 on customer satisfaction created by the implementation of QMS ISO 9001 stating that the deliveries of products consistently meet customer requirements it will create customer satisfaction. Thus the results of the draft QMS ISO 9001:2008, will provide direction to the translation of the vision, mission, goals, and objectives of the School of Economic Pasundan Bandung in higher education. In terms of implementation, the design of QMS ISO 9001:2008 will involve all elements of management from the management level down to the upper level (bottom-up managerial). To enable the managerial implementation, all fields can be run in accordance with the duties and functions designed into the system management without any interference/ involvement directly and continuously from the top. This design produces documents as Draft Quality Management System ISO 9001:2008, Document of Quality Manual ISO 9001:2008, Document of Standard Operating Procedure ISO 9001:2008, Document of Job Description and Document of Instructions.
Based on the formulation of the problem and discussion of the results of research on the design of the QMS ISO 9001 in School of Economic Pasundan Bandung, it is known that the quality management system ISO 9001 has benefits and contribute to the upgrading of the accreditation of courses and institutions so that in the elaboration of the vision, mission, goals and objectives School of Economic Pasundan Bandung can be achieved optimally through the implementation of quality management system ISO 9001, and this research resulted in:
The draft guidance document for the quality of School of Economic Pasundan Bandung designed to meet the requirements of international standards of quality management system (ISO 9001:2008), by not eliminating altogether the management system that runs on School of Economic Pasundan Bandung.
The draft document of standard operating procedure (SOP) for School of Economic Pasundan Bandung has been designed in accordance with the requirements of international standards of quality management system (ISO 9001:2008), by adding the SOP regarding manufacturing procedures and Accreditation Program Accreditation Institution of Higher Education as a consequence Logical ISO 9001:2008 Higher Education specialization.
The draft document of the job description and work instruction to School of Economic Pasundan Bandung has been designed in accordance with the requirements of international standards of the quality management system (ISO 9001:2008) which is the technical implementation procedures in carrying out organizational management.
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