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International Business Influenced by Quality Environment: A Sociological Appraisal

Literature Review

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International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development
Volume 8, Issue 4, October 2022, Pages 7-15

International Business Influenced by Quality Environment: A Sociological Appraisal

DOI: 10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.84.2001
URL: https://doi.org/10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.84.2001

Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

Emeritus of Sociology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract: International business is an action widely practiced within the world nations today. It is highly influenced by safe quality of  environment. Environment is itself varies in different geographies of the world. Africa as a whole is environmentally unsafe, and its unhealthy situation increases its environmental vulnerability every day. Poor economic conditions, increasing population in cities, high population growth rate, droughts and many more are some of the factors destroying the environment within the entire African nations. However, where environment is destructed, business interactions are slow. All nations today are somehow or the other facing environmental issues. Therefore, the world countries need to improve their environments so that they can enhance their business administration. To develop business, first quality of environment must be improved. We can conclude that a safe environment if the foreground of international business. If environment is reformed and poverty is eradicated, more business will be on move.

Keywords: Economic development and environment, Population growth concerns, Human capital, The sphere and environment, Sociology

1. Introduction

Sociologically speaking, quality of environment has a determining role in business development. In a safe and healthy environment, more deals are done and transacted. In developing countries, environment is highly poor/ destructed because of more population, shortage of rain, deforestation, shortage of investment on environmental measures, etc. The best example in this regard is the African continent with disastrous environment. To enhance business internationally, countries must initially invest/ improve global environment. Therefore, if environment is safe, and people are rich enough, more business will be actively done. However, if the world can reach an economic equilibrium, business will reach more prosperity. In a sociological term, overuse of goods and commodities must be controlled and advised. If so happens, more resources will remain for the next/ upcoming generations. Quality of environment is defined as an individual’s perception of life in the context of weather, greenery, water, cleanliness, where people would live higher healthy life (World Health Organization, Retrieved 22- May-22). International business widely refers to the trade of goods and services, technology, capital and/ or knowledge across national borders at a global or transnational scale. One of the first scholars to engage in developing a theory of multinational companies was Canadian economist (Stephen Hymer, 2010).

In this article we will look at economic development and its effects on the environment; That is, how the positive or negative results of economic growth appear in developing countries; Lessons learned from this process, the issues that socio-economic development entails, the effects that this process has on the environment, and so on, are among the issues addressed in the field of environment and economic development. . Today, almost all societies seek their economic development in various forms. While this movement has positive achievements, at the same time, it also has various effects; That is, what generally affects the environment. Therefore, understanding the relationship between the two, itself leads to a relatively healthy environment can be achieved by taking the necessary measures. Similarly, since each socio-economic sector needs its own planning, the environment is no exception.

2. Method of Research

Methodology used in the present article is of qualitative type. In that, various paradigms have been used to find out about the facts regarding pandemics during the history. Qualitative research usually studies people, events or areas in their natural settings. In finding facts for the research, the researcher engaged in careful data collection and thoughtful analysis of what was relevant. In the documentary research applied for the present research, printed and written materials were widely regarded. The research was performed as a qualitative library-type in which the researcher had to refer to the relevant and related sources. In the current research, various documents were thoroughly investigated, and the needful inferences were made. The data fed by the investigator in the present article is hopefully reliable. Though literature on pandemics is very limited, yet the author tried to investigate many different resources in order to elicit the necessary information to build up the text.

3. Economic and Environmental Development

Although Keynes introduced this relationship as one of the pioneers of economic development and environmental issues in the first half of the twentieth century, it disappeared in 1946. Many of his followers, and other pioneers of development economics, followed the structure of this connection. Industrialized countries were among the first communities in which the issue of environment and development economics was raised. In other words, preserving the environment and its health was a priority of the development program. This led to the distribution of industries and production resources in a fair and calculated manner throughout a country (industrial country); That is, what led to more employment, more economic prosperity, more immigration prevention, and so on.

Thus, environmental protection schemes during the first half of the twentieth century in their industrialized countries led to positive results of economic development and increased productivity in those societies. At the same time, “least developed” societies, which were generally unreasonable and less conscious in their economic development, concentrated industry and economic investment in some areas. While many other areas did not benefit from the necessary investments, this led to a doubling of the industrial sector and areas where more investment was made, to be attacked by immigrants (unemployed population). This move doubly or even more endangered the environment; That is, a variety of cases of chemical pollution, social pollution, improper communication and the like appeared in these places. Under such circumstances, many less developed countries today face the phenomenon of unhealthy environment and.

At the same time, environmental considerations of economic progress were less and clearly the concern of such scientists. That is, what is called “justifies the purpose of the means.” In order to achieve economic progress, higher income, higher quality of life and similar conditions, countries and industrial societies in various forms implemented their industrial plans even within cities; That is what is known today as environmental degradation. Thus, many of today’s developed countries have experienced environmental degradation in the past; For example, Japan has experienced environmental disruptions during its rapid economic growth. Given these experiences and information that can be easily accessed today, developing societies need to adopt policies and strategies to deal with less environmental disturbance during their industrialization. The term “sustainable development” became even more important after the Brandt Commission in 1987; In our future joint report; Such development must meet all current needs (Smith: 1998) (Brundtland Commission: 1987).

Today, environmental degradation has spread even from urban to rural communities. Vietnam, for example, which is pursuing industrialization and economic development today, has been largely exposed to environmental pollution, pollution of rivers and streams; In a way that around the city (Hanoi), the deterioration of environmental health has spread from this city to rural areas. Given such circumstances, industrial and economic planners have a heavy responsibility as far as the environment is concerned.

Their inference or understanding of the subject was such that environmental issues were of secondary importance in comparison to higher incomes and the joy of escaping poverty. What was more important in the past and during the industrial-economic development in the current industrial societies was the increase of income and the subsequent recovery from poverty. Therefore, hard work, work environment, how the environment and conditions of this type were generally of secondary importance. It is also noteworthy that in that era, public awareness was also lower than it is today. Various factors such as hard work, lack of services, environmental conditions and the like, together, had caused life expectancy or average life expectancy to be low; That is, even if he is less than 40 years old. Given the experiences of industrial societies in the past, today they have taken many measures to keep their environment as healthy as possible.

This condition has generally occurred in all developed countries before. All kinds of pollution from industry and economic development, which itself posed a great threat to the environment, occurred widely in the present industrialized countries during the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century; Gradually, and perhaps a century later, it has entered developing countries as a new wave; That is, what is visible and tangible as environmental pollution in its various dimensions and forms. Therefore, in the present era, due to population growth, especially urban population, countries should invest more in preserving their environment; That is, more than has already happened in industrialized countries. In explaining sustainable economic development, it should be added that current generations have a responsibility to reproduce, maintain and improve crop and forest resources; So that future generations can use those resources (Donovan Finn: 2009).

During the nineteenth century, for example, British industrial plants polluted the environment in various ways in order to achieve further progress; Just to gain more wealth and income. Many industrial centers and factories in that period continued to produce at full capacity and in different shifts; Regardless of the extent to which the intended production process endangers the pollutant and the environment. Because Britain was looking for high production at the time; In such a way that it can export various goods and services to most parts of the world, under these conditions, the size of its industrial and production centers always flourished. Gradually, as other countries entered the field of production as competitors, the amount and extent of pollution in that country began to decrease.

At that time, smoke, dust and other pollutants were affecting many water sources. One of the most polluting and even dangerous and deadly sources was polluted water, which inevitably had to be used by individuals and families. This situation in various forms destroys a significant part of the population. This situation is now completely under control in industrialized countries, and surface and open water are less common. However, today many developing countries still have to use this type of water resources, which is completely unhealthy and polluted, for various purposes.

Thus, the wave and flow of pollution and pollutants has more or less spread to less developed countries over a century. It should also be noted that less developed countries in the past with the same situation; That is, they have encountered polluted water sources. Many such countries are currently facing polluted industrial waters and the like. It is noteworthy that the number of population in such societies (less developed) has increased more than 5 times today compared to a century ago and.

Dangerous working conditions at the time were fines that had to be paid for economic development and a better life following income growth. What is now referred to as job security, workplace protection, and other potential safety issues was not valued in the past, and simply because of economic growth and higher incomes, working conditions and risks compared to the current situation. Was non-standard; That is, what is more or less seen in less developed societies today. Therefore, from the sociological point of view of the environment, while economic development in countries should be pursued, safety measures and environmental protection, occupational health (health in the workplace) should also always be considered. At the same time, factors such as ecology, politics and culture have an important place in achieving and maintaining economic development (James, et al. 2015).

The Middle East, Pittsburgh in the United States, the Ruhr area in Germany, and dozens of other industrial hotspots are considered devastated lands, where poverty has gradually receded following rising incomes. Therefore, in order to eradicate poverty, many countries have expanded their industrial hubs as much as possible. Although the consequences of the relevant pollution cases are tangible and significant, but for the sake of achieving better living conditions and higher income, they have also accepted entering the industry and industrial development. Thus the symptoms of poverty more or less subsided among many classes. This led to more economic growth, more income, more per capita income, and at the same time superior technologies and new initiatives in those societies; In a way, the negative and destructive effects of industry have largely disappeared.

The pioneers of development economics believe that in recent years, countries with minimal development have had no concern about environmental pollution. Similarly, pollution control policies in such countries have been very rare during this period, or the 1980s. What happened to industrialized countries at the beginning of the twentieth century and even earlier has gradually emerged within developing countries over the last 30 years; That is, those countries that have just entered the process of industrialization. China, for example, is in a similar situation today. The expansion of industries in different parts of the country has led to various types of environmental pollution, pollution of resources (such as rivers, lakes) and the like. Ecological sustainability of human habitation is part of the relationship between humans and their natural, social and constructive environment (Scerri, et al. 2010). In any case, the process of industrialization and development seems to be a contradictory process in itself; That is, what countries must necessarily accept.

While the Chinese are known as the world’s largest producers of coal, the country’s polluted urban environment is less of a concern to Chinese citizens. This means that the country must also bear the costs of pollution in order to develop and prosper; Not only pollution, but also many communications, socio-cultural networks, traditions and ancient patterns have been affected in that country. At the same time, embarking on a new transformation affects many of the previous frameworks.

In other words, the average Chinese citizen prefers to tolerate new, yet more polluting, industries by working on rice fields or riding Rickshaws to carry passengers, goods, and the like. Because the Chinese way of life has also become highly competitive, and it itself requires more income, many citizens prefer unhealthy urban spaces to natural and healthy rural environments solely to meet their economic and material needs. As a result, there is always a huge influx of immigrants from rural areas to urban areas in that country; That is, a phenomenon that has affected the environment in various ways and in a negative way; This is the case not only in China, but also in many developing societies today. What planning systems need to pay attention to is balancing economic development with environmental health; In such a way that more health and guarantees can be provided for future generations. Hence, what is happening in China today, other developing countries and those societies that pursue industrial development goals, should expect it.

Among developing communities, even Taiwan’s rich island, surrounded by open waters, is polluted, with two months of the year officially declared polluted and unhealthy. At the same time, their interest in higher incomes has made its citizens less sensitive to various cases of pollution. The pollution epidemic caused by industry and its economic development has affected various aspects in a comprehensive way. As noted, the small land of Taiwan, with a population of about 22 million in East Asia while connected to open waters on all sides, economic competition, the expansion of industry, and the establishment of industrial facilities in urban and suburban areas are causing pollution. It has caused the environment for an average of one-sixth of the year in that community. At the same time, and of course, children and the elderly are negatively affected by health in such circumstances and inevitably. Therefore, in their industrialization, societies should always consider the indicators related to environmental health, during which the environment is less the victim of economic development.

For many pioneers of development economics, many people in less developed societies prefer ready-to-eat food at the crossroads to clean air. This means that a large proportion of manpower in developing countries has moved from cities to rural areas to achieve better jobs and higher incomes. The competition has led to the abandonment of food patterns, natural foods and more or less traditional lifestyles by these people, and in contrast to the urban lifestyle, more or less artificial and ready-made products by these people have been given priority. This situation can be seen today in many developing countries and cities; That is, the flow that itself increases the destruction of the environment and the density of the urban population, and … the transportation system network itself plays a major role in the production of greenhouse gases; It is estimated that one third of all emissions come from the transportation system (Buehler, et al. 2011).

According to the late Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, the worst pollution is poverty, and it has attracted the feelings of many masses in less developed societies. Poverty causes many individuals and citizens to underutilize their potential and self-confidence. This kind of thinking or such a situation causes the perpetuation of poverty among some classes. Therefore, planning systems must from time to time adopt policies and measures to control and curb existing poverty. The enactment of special laws, prioritizing many poor families, expanding the education system among these people, and so on, are among the mechanisms that themselves play a role in reducing poverty.

4. Primary Concerns

Population growth in different countries and parts of the world has stopped the chances of development in them. Excessive population in the face of limited resources has led to a significant proportion of the population of many countries in poor and inadequate conditions. Such individuals and their poor populations contribute to the degradation of the environment in various ways. The living of such people on the outskirts of cities, in non-standard places, etc., endangers the environment, for example. Following the over-exploitation of environmental resources, it has been suggested that these resources should be treated as economic wealth and natural capital (Barbier: 2006). Also, the increase in population in conditions of land and water shortages has led to a decline in product quality. Therefore, pursuing policies based on which a desirable population can be achieved contributes to social health and environmental protection.

This has led to many people in these communities being driven to the margins and hillsides; That is, areas that have been leveled and cultivated. Such lands generally face irrigation problems. Population growth in many parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America has caused soil erosion in these areas, spread poverty, and ultimately led to greater migration. Thus, following the uncontrolled increase of population, the quality of agricultural products has been greatly degraded in many cases. At the same time, in 1987, Edward Barber argued that environmental protection and economic development are not in conflict with each other, but can complement each other (Barbier: 1987). Surface has become an agricultural field, it has itself caused soil erosion; That is, a phenomenon that has somehow led to the destruction of the environment. The above conditions have led to the expansion of urbanization, an increase in the number of cars in these areas, an increase in transportation, an increase in CO2 due to combustion, and as a result, environmental pollution. Although population displacements initially solve the economic problems of such individuals, they eventually create many abnormalities related to the environment. As less developed countries are constantly striving for more products for their growing populations, they also face more environmental disasters and wastes.

For example, the widespread use of pesticides, while having harmful effects on humans, makes the insects in question (which must be eradicated) more resistant, etc., which in many cases both for humans and the environment. Life is negatively affected. Therefore, creating interaction between humans and their environment can greatly prevent many possible environmental wastes. Also, chemical fertilizers have allowed leakage and entry into water sources. Therefore, adequate monitoring of water resources and the use of chemical fertilizers should always be adequately monitored so that the environment and consequently humans are less exposed to hazards.

The spread of industrialization causes air pollution, groundwater pollution and the like; That is, what causes the decline of human health and proper productivity. Industrialization and expansion of industry must always be done under adequate supervision; In such a way that the exploitation of resources takes place to its desired extent; Otherwise, environmental pollution, airborne particles, as well as leakage of effluents into their groundwater resources will cause irreparable damage. Therefore, the process of industrialization, although it brings significant economic resources and added value, at the same time, the above problems and risks appear. Therefore, the relevant centers and institutions must always have effective and decisive control over the process of industrialization.

5. Human Capital

Human capital itself is derived from social capital, and it includes social and personality abilities, knowledge, and characteristics. Human capital is a very broad concept. This means that its knowledge-based knowledge and perceptions as human capital lead to the further development of societies. Human capital itself has an effective role in creating creativity and producing economic value in a society. Hence, the improvement of economic situation and the resulting productivity originate from human capital. Therefore, countries should always strive to create desirable human capital in their societies, and between different strata. Social capital, on the other hand, is an effort to acquire social, biological, economic, cultural, and other skills that ultimately contribute to the health and preservation of the environment. Many theories explicitly link investment in human capital development to education. The development of human capital is more concerned with education than anything else, and for this reason, and in order to lead to economic development, the basic prerequisite for the provision of skilled human capital has been trained. Fulfilling this need in some cases requires five years or more of time and investment. Although countries such as China have invested heavily in education before they became industrialized, in the last three decades, along with their industrial and economic development, they have made education investment a priority in their programs. In this way, the required qualitative population can be achieved. The move itself affects how resources are exploited and consequently the environment is protected.

At the same time, the development of human capital, due to its various dimensions, leads to health and preservation of the environment. In conditions of balanced growth; That is, conditions in which, according to the balance between human capacity and physical resources, goods and services are produced to an appropriate level. In this movement, the environment is also preserved. Therefore, in order to achieve environmental health, balanced growth and proper use of resources, more and more attention should be paid. The first move to grow the right population is also recommended as a precondition. Communities with high population growth are therefore far from balanced growth; That is, population growth is always ahead of resources in motion. This situation causes resources to be depleted and destroyed in various ways. Many scientists believe that in order to achieve (sustainable) economic development, different indicators must work together (KM. FAO: 2006).

6. Different Dimensions of the Environment

Healthy and productive life is possible in harmony with nature. This means that a kind of balance must be struck between financial output and natural resources. Environmental management, environmental studies, environmental engineering, and so on, themselves provide environmental health benefits; That is, what can itself guarantee development in its various dimensions. Excessive exploitation of natural resources leads to erosion and consequent degradation of the environment. Therefore, proper utilization of its natural resources and environment can create more guarantees for future generations. Today, many less developed countries, which are facing increasing population and manpower, are inevitably endangered natural resources and the environment in those communities. This in itself creates potential dangers for future generations in those societies.

Environmental protection itself is influenced by environmental legislation, environmental ethics and education. From a sociological point of view, the necessary laws related to the environment should always be enacted and implemented as needed. Likewise, creating appropriate ethics, necessary norms, and guidelines of this kind can, as much as possible, while maintaining the health of the environment, also lead to development in its various dimensions. Therefore, the environment must never be sacrificed in order to achieve development. Environmental advocacy; That is, the ideology or social movement related to the environment itself advocates various aspects of environmental health. Orientation to the environment seeks to establish a harmonious relationship between humans and natural systems. This trend has gained a lot of fans around the world today; That is, a movement that leads to better health, longer life expectancy, healthier economic movement, and so on. In general, environmentalists favor sustainable resource management; That is, a process that itself requires proper policy-making, environmental protection, ecology, human rights and the like. Environmental protection and its advocacy ideology began in the 1980s.

Likewise, global warming and population growth are themselves significant as motivations for this movement. While this movement originally originated in industrial societies, its introduction and spread within developing countries is also of considerable importance, and ultimately brings environmental health to such societies.

7. Different Dimensions of the Environment

Various issues affect the quantity and quality of the environment, the most important of which are:

1 – Energy, which itself plays a central role in creating any challenge or opportunity in today’s world, and to which the contemporary world is largely dependent. Due to economic-industrial development and the expansion of communications, widespread urbanization, and the like, the human race needs more energy than ever before. Therefore, the rational use of energy so that future generations can have a share in it, is itself emphasized by development economists and environmental sociologists. Job opportunities, security, climate change, rising incomes, etc., are all related to energy; That is, energies including solar energy, renewable energy, improving energy efficiency, new energies and the like.

2 – Cities are known as the center of ideas, trade, culture, science, productivity, social development and the like, and this has led to more social and economic development of individuals. At the same time, the general challenges of these cities, including congestion, congestion, lack of resources to provide services, lack of housing, poor infrastructure and the like, can be seen within cities today. During the twentieth century, urban areas have expanded more than ever before. Industrial and economic development have played a role as major factors in attracting population to these areas. Although this movement has more or less stopped in industrialized countries today; That is, there is no more urbanization, but the cities of less developed countries are expanding widely. In the absence of monitoring of such cities, the environment is exposed to various hazards in various forms. Therefore, systems related to the environmental organization, municipalities and other relevant agencies should increasingly exercise their control over evolving urban areas. Likewise, successful cities are those that reduce pollution and poverty by improving their resources; That is, they deduct the cost of conserving resources and environmental health from their findings.

3 – Food supply also depends on proper agriculture, exploitation of fishery resources, proper exploitation of forests and the like. Today, following the increase in the consumer population, food supply is also of considerable importance. Therefore, the construction and creation of infrastructure facilities related to food supply; Such as agriculture, various techniques of exploitation of agricultural resources, exploitation of marine food resources, as well as forest conservation, are themselves of considerable importance. Otherwise, restrictions on food supply, increasing poverty, and endangering the environment await such communities. Today, many less developed countries, which are also rapidly urbanizing, face such challenges.

Environmental and developmental resources must work to meet the 925 million hungry people in the world in 2012 and the more than 2 billion hungry people worldwide in 2050. Socio-economic development plans should always make the necessary investments in agriculture and food production due to the increase in population in the coming years; So that by 2050, the poverty, malnutrition and food shortages index can be gradually reduced. These problems are generally present in developing countries. The Rio Conference (2012) has also placed great emphasis on this policy. Therefore, food and agriculture themselves play a key role in development and are considered as the eliminators of hunger and poverty.

Developing societies, which generally should be more active in their agricultural sector, unfortunately in many cases do not have an increase in production (surplus production), and in return have to be either in short supply, or if possible a portion of the food they need From other countries. At the same time, industrial societies, given that the main axis of their economy is focused on industry and industrial production, at the same time show the maximum utilization of their agricultural capacities; In such a way that they export their surplus production to other less developed societies and …

4 – Clean and accessible water for all is an undeniable necessity in the world in which we live. While there is not enough water in the world today, millions of people, especially children, die each year from diseases caused by lack of water resources, unhealthy water, lack of sanitation, and so on, due to the weak economy and poor infrastructure. They shake hands. However, in the conditions of better water resources management, water sanitation, even in cases of drought, the shortage of water resources can be largely compensated. Therefore, in the present age of water engineering, measured systems of water resources and the like, to a large extent can provide security related to water resources.

5 – Natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, droughts, tsunamis and the like have devastating effects on people, the environment and the economy. In such circumstances, effective plans and programs lead to improvement and healing. While weak plans and options lead to greater vulnerability, ultimately, with the world’s population now more than 7.3 billion, adopting effective environmental policies should be a priority for countries.

8. Conclusion

The article reaches the conclusion that safe environment generally enhances international business among nations. However, if the environment is safe and in order, investors are inclined to invest more, but, on the contrary many nations are declined to be in business relations with the countries with bad environment. Similarly, environmentally-damaged countries are involved with poverty too, not letting them enter international business relations with special refer to the developed world. Not only The Third world countries are facing environmental issues, but some of the industrial nations too are facing environmental issues too___ retarding their business relations. However, increasing number of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are facing challenges as far as the environment is concerned. Many factors such as shortage of water, shortage of capital, increasing population growth rate and many more are responsible for the issue. It is worth noting that environmentally international business relations affect the environment in The Third World, to gradually improve.


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