Journal of International Business Research and Marketing
Volume 4, Issue 2, January 2019, Pages 20-23
Modern Marketing Communication in Tourism
High School of Entrepreneurship and Law, Czech Republic
Abstract: Mass tourism is a significant contributor to the development not only of regional but also national economies and generally, it is presented by tourism destination. Despite certain tendencies in preference for individual tourism, it is expected that mass tourism and mass tourism destination will continue to play a dominant role in the future. The present paper is dedicated to the topic of possible usage of modern tools of marketing communication in the management of mass tourism destination. Particular characteristics of its product are having an influence on the usage and effectiveness of traditional forms of marketing communication (advertising, exhibitions, etc.) in the presentation of a mass tourism destination and on the other hand, the possible preference of using new modern trends of marketing communication. The aim of this article is based on analysis of primary, secondary data and field observations to evaluate the possibility and critical factors of usage of selected forms of modern tools of marketing communication like internet marketing, social media, mobile marketing and the world of mouth marketing, etc. The result will be the evaluation of usage of modern marketing communication and its current state of the application in the propagation of mass tourism destinations including a proposal of some recommendations for their next application.
Keywords: Mass tourism, Modern marketing communication tools, Social media
Mass tourism, which is developing from the beginning of the 60s of the last century approximately, is an essential contributor to the development not only of regional but also national economies and generally, it is presented by tourism destination. Despite certain tendencies in preference for individual tourism, it is expected that mass tourism and mass tourism destination will continue to play a dominant role in some states whose economies are depending upon its growth and where the tourism is very often considered as the tourism industry.
Because of the increasing competitiveness in the field of tourism the role of marketing communication as a primary tool of telling others that “, we are here,” no matter if it is the provider of tourism services, hospitality or holding sports or cultural events like Olympic games, musical festivals. That is why the topic that the author deals with is the possible usage of modern tools of marketing communication in the management of mass tourism destination. Special characteristics of tourism product are influencing the usage and effectiveness of traditional tools of marketing communication like advertising, exhibitions, etc. in the presentation of mass tourism destination and on the other hand the possible preference of using new modern trends and tools of marketing communication
2. Tools of Modern Marketing Communication in Tourism
Social media are gaining prominence as an element of destination marketing organization (DMO) marketing strategy at a time when public sector cuts in their funding require them to seek higher value in the way marketing budgets are spent. Social media offers DMOs with a tool to reach a global audience with limited resources. (Hays, Page,& Buhalis,2013). There are many ways how the marketing specialist working in the sector of tourism, better said in the sector of the massive tourist destination, could wake up the interest of potential visitors for visiting selected tourist destination. At the beginning of massive tourism in 60s´of last century, the situation seemed to be very simple, because the desire for traveling after the stabilization of The World War II was very high. Due to changes in technical, social and economic area, the situation has changed radically. Not only the number of tourists but also tourist destination increased. This situation has changed a lot in the last years when new destination has appeared, that is why for many traditional massive tourist destinations the goal of catching new visitors is more and more difficult. The reasons leading to this fact are different, sometimes the destination has just reached the point of stagnation in the tourism lifecycle (Figure 1) and does not know how to face new challenges and grow up (the case of Costa Brava in Spain) or it is just a victim of turbulent social and political changes in selected areas, were before the tourism was the building stone of their economy (Egypt, Tunisia, etc.).
Figure 1: Tourism Lifecycle
Source: BUTLER, 2006
One of the solutions to the problems mentioned above could be the use of the most appropriate tool of modern marketing communication. While choosing the “best” one, the consideration of following limiting facts (but not only them) is the must:
- The destination is an important part of a tourism product and could be described as a geographical area consisting of all necessary services and infrastructure for the stay of a specific tourist or tourism segment. Destinations are the competitive units of incoming tourism. This fact could limit the selected tool of marketing communication because that one must respect the character of the tourism destination.
- The base of tourism destination, besides its attractiveness, is providing tourism services and the peculiar characteristics of services like intangibility, immateriality, etc. could be limiting for using some modern tools of marketing communication.
- The fact that the destination is based on massive tourism (usually a broad spectrum of visitors with different preferences for marketing communication) is also the limiting one.
- The world is getting “online.”
Considering all this facts and characteristics of some traditional marketing communication tools like advertising, personal sale, lobby, participation in fairs and exhibitions, sponsoring, sales promotion and especially some new ones like direct marketing, public relation, internet marketing could lead to successful marketing communication of massive tourist destination (Foret, 2006).
In the last years, there could be seen incredible evolution as for new tools of modern marketing communication that can be divided into four groups; the first one is called Fixed stars belonging to this group following types of communication: E-mailing, World of mouth, Local related search. The second group with QR codes, Micromarketing, HR branding is going to disappear, and their use will go down. On the opposite side are standing Guerilla marketing, marketing automation, Real-time marketing, Social commerce, Social customer relationship management, these are the trends with the predicted success. Among the actual trends, the following tools of modern marketing communication belongs: remarketing, social media, viral marketing, mobile commerce, video marketing among the others.
For further analysis and to reach the aim of the present paper is needed to define some of the tools as mentioned above. The author will pay attention to World of mouth, QR codes, Real-time marketing the main attention will be paid to social media marketing. These tools of marketing communication were chosen because respondents most frequently mentioned them in primary research.
World of mouth (WOM)
Word-of-Mouth Marketing (abbreviated WOM) marketing is focused on inducing the effect of the oral spread of “advertising” between customers themselves. Part of the marketing buzz. Generally, WOM raises new, surprising or different topics. WOM can be positive or negative (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner,., Walsh, & Gremler,2004).
QR codes (QRC)
In advertising and product communication very frequently used tool. They can refer to websites, coupons, and may also include a complete electronic business card. The smartphone and application is the must (Dou & Li, 2008).
Real-time marketing (RTM)
Real-Time Marketing is marketing that is based on up to date events. The difference between marketing and real-time marketing is that instead of creating a marketing plan in advance, real-time marketing is creating a strategy focused on current, relevant trends and immediate feedback from customers. Real-time marketing aims to connect consumers with the product or service that they need now, at the moment. (Kaplan, 2012)
Social media marketing (SMM)
Social media is one of the fastest growing communication technologies in the Internet environment. Social media marketing refers to Internet-based online media in which individuals with common interests, goals, and practices engage in social interactions constructing personal profiles and sharing information and experiences. Social media represents a variety of forms such as social networks (e.g., Facebook), photo sharing sites (e.g., Flickr, Photobucket), video creating and sharing sites (e.g., YouTube, Ustream), online communities, microblogging tools (e.g., Twitter), social tagging (e.g., Digg), newsreaders (Google Reader), public Internet boards and forums, review/rating websites (e.g., TripAdvisor), blogs/moblogs, tagging sites, podcasting, wikis, and individual websites. One of the most important functions of social media is that it provides a Web-based application in which users can easily create and post a variety of content in the forms of texts, photos, videos, etc. (Kang & Schuett, 2013).
Social media itself is a catch-all term for sites that may provide radically different social actions. For instance, Twitter is a social site designed to let people share short messages or “updates” with others. Facebook, in contrast, is a full-blown social networking site that allows sharing updates, photos, joining events and a variety of other activities (Persuit, 2014)
The advent of internet-based social media technologies has enabled travelers to quickly and conveniently share their travel experiences. Shared information on social media sites is recognized as an important information source which may influence travel decision making for potential travelers. Results showed that identification and internalization are critical determinants that positively increase actual travel-experience sharing on social media as mediated by perceived enjoyment (Kavoura & Stavrianea, 2014).
To reach the aim of this article the analysis of primary and secondary data and field observations was used to evaluate the effectiveness of selected modern marketing communication tools in the area of the mass tourism destination. To create the following paper, the method of the literature searches and expert articles have been applied. With the view of confirming the hypothesis, diagnostic mission methods have been used along with the vertical analysis of selected indicators, as well as the primary research method – the questionnaire survey was conducted among respondents. The quota selection has been applied. With the aim of creating the final part of the article, synthetic and deductive procedures have been applied too.
The results of the questionnaire research are the result of the survey, which was carried out in the period from November 2016 to January 2017. As a method for the realization of the research method, the personal respondents were selected. The respondents were selected by the polling form of unrepresentative techniques appropriate to the occasion. The size was 450 of the respondents, of which 195 were women, 205 men. Regarding the geographic segmentation 60 respondents were from the region of Olomouc, 90 respondents from the Moravian-Silesian region, 45 from the Slovak Republic and 205 from the Bohemia region.
The survey aimed to obtain the attitude of respondents to selected tools of modern marketing communication while searching the destination for their vacation, sharing their experience online while being on vacations and presenting their opinion on just finished vacations. The results are presented in Figure 2 Results of the survey.
Figure 2: Results of the Survey
Source: Author´s research
Searching destination of vacation
Generally, in the phase of searching destination for vacation, the most evaluated tool to obtain information to make the best decision is World of mouth marketing. 45 % of respondents are considering this type of marketing communication as very useful having a significant influence on their decision making. 38% of respondents are considering information that is available on social media. About 16 % trust in information that was given them by real-time marketing and only 1% of respondents are finding important facts through QR codes.
Being on vacations
Generally, in the phase of searching information of the destination, while being on vacation, the most evaluated tool to share the experience is social media marketing – more than 85% of respondent reported that they are sharing their photos, videos, enjoyment through social media (most frequently on Facebook). The QR codes are used for searching for information when they are on vacations – about 8% of respondents besides sharing their experience on social media are using QR codes. The real-time marketing and the world of mouth did not reach significant rating in this phase of holiday making 4% respectively 3 %.
In this phase, the most used tool to spread out our experiences is social media marketing sharing the position with the world of mouth (42% resp. 41%). The rest 17% go to real-time marketing. The QR code was not mentioned in any response.
The issue is comprehensive, and in the context of the next survey, the author should focus on other tools which are predicted to be successful. The results of the survey confirm that some tools with big expectations in the past like QR code are not used very frequently. On the other hand, Social media marketing seems to be the best way for mass tourism destination to communicate with potential visitors. As for real-time marketing, it could be quite difficult to apply it, because the destination management authorities do not have very often databases of clients contacts to communicate with them. The world of mouth marketing and its usage in the area of tourism could be relatively counterproductive due to the characteristics of services they are offering when some clients are having the feeling that their vacations did not meet their expectations. This fact is not often the fault of destination management. The article deals with just a few of all modern marketing tools, for better evaluation of its effectiveness further survey dedicated to other modern marketing tools is required.
The issue is very broad, and in the context of the next survey author should focus on other tools which are predict to be successful. The results of survey confirm that some tools with big expectations in the past like QR code is not used very frequently. On the other hand Social media marketing seems to be the best way for mass tourism destination to communicate with potential visitors. As for real time marketing it could be quite difficult to apply it, because the destination management authorities don´t have very often databases of clients contacts to communicate with them. The world of mouth marketing and its usage in the area of tourism could be relatively counterproductive due to the characteristics of services they are offering, when some clients are having feeling that their vacations did not met their expectations. This fact it´s not often the fault of destination management. The article deals with just few of all modern marketing tools, for better evaluation of its effectiveness further survey dedicated to others modern marketing tools is required.
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