International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration
Volume 2, Issue 8, July, 2016, Pages 34-41
Public Land Acquisition and Land Use Change Problems in Ogun State
1Bello Ismail K, 2Sodiya Abiodun K, 3Solanke Peter A
1Department of Estate management and Valuation, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta
2Department of Estate management, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta
3Department of Architecture, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta
Abstract: Human use of land has altered the structure and functioning of ecosystem. The most spatially and economically important human uses of land globally include cultivation in various forms; livestock grazing, settlement and construction, reserves and protected lands and timber extraction. The patterns of land use give us insight into the factors that have caused the land cover to change. A better understanding of the determining factors of land use changes is of crucial importance to the study of global environmental change. This paper theoretically strive to evaluate the contributions of government policies and programmes in transforming the various land uses in the urban centers of Ogun state with a view to provide better understanding among the stakeholders in real estate investment. The paper recommended that although landuse changes is an inevitable consequences in the developing nations, there is the need to consider the positive and negative aspect of the policies in order not to jeopardize the available environmental resources for sustainable development. The paper concluded by emphasized the need for government to carry the citizen along in the various policies and programs for even development.
Keywords: Development control, Settlement, Planning, Infrastructure, Crime
In Nigeria, like in most developing countries, the population of towns and cities are increasing at an explosive rate. It has not been possible to stem down the movement of people from the rural areas to the urban centers, particularly the rapidly growing cities in Ogun state such as Abeokuta, Ota, Ijebu Ode, Sagamu etc. The rate of natural population increase in the cities has been consistently high. The most obvious impact of the rapid urban population growth has been the demand for urban land and the consequences are the land acquisition undertaken by government to take care of social infrastructure facilities. It was observed that more people in the urban areas meant an increased demand for basic services such as schools, hospitals postal and telecommunication services, recreational etc. public land acquisition
public land acquisition
In addition, residents in the urban areas must have some means of livelihood, which in turn generate demand for shops, offices, factories, banks, and work places of various descriptions. This was the reason why Agbola, (1994) stated that cities represent citadel of civilization, creativity and ambition. According to Adeagbo (2008), most human activities that are detrimental to the environment are urban based. Ayeni, (1979), opined that the provision of various amenities, social services and public utilities required fundamentally different locational consideration. This invariable necessitated the pressure on the available land and the consequences are the changes in the uses.
public land acquisition
Hendricks, (2013), however, observed that the large concentration of people in the urban centers has brought with it a host of new or aggravated problems with new demand on land and natural resources. Ayoade, (2012), also noted that the process of urbanization involves the transformation of the earth surface. Thus the natural pathway of energy and matter in the environment are modified by urbanization and new ones are created. public land acquisition
2. Literature Review
According to Kadiri, (1998), the rapid rate of urbanization brought with it many intractable urban problems, such as poor environmental sanitation, pollution, crime, urban sprawl, unemployment, overcrowding among others. Other writers like Bello (2001, 2012), Bello Imam, (2012), Adeshina, (2010), Tade and Ademola, (2009), Adesola, (2007), confirmed that urban centers are faced with many environmental problems associated with its rapid growth and development.
public land acquisition
Research on land management practices have demonstrated that over exploitation of common pool natural resources is not an inevitable consequence of human nature and the spatial distribution of resources, but is contingent on the structure of human communities and the condition of social institutions that effectively govern access to a resource, monitor its condition and establish sanctions for over exploitation. Taking a critical look around and within our cities, it is obvious that the interrelationship and implication of uncontrolled land use development and activities are not duly studied or taken into consideration when development and other activities that have planning implication take place. Onokerhoraye, (1994) remarked that effective allocation of urban land among various land use activities contribute to land use problem in Nigerian cities. These problems apply to planned and unplanned districts of urban areas. As a result of this, the relative proportion of urban land use allocation that should ensure the emergence of a tolerance and decent urban environment has not come to stay in many Nigerian cities. public land acquisition
Jain, (2004), stated that in rapidly developing cities, distorted land market and inefficient land management have often resulted in environmental degradation and that poor planning, inadequate or inappropriate building design, faulty construction, inadequate maintenance and squatter settlement on hazard prone land all contribute to environmental degradation and increase vulnerability and catastrophic events. public land acquisition
public land acquisition
Although human population growth is commonly seen as the major cause of land cover change and destruction of habitats for biota, particularly because of land clearing to grow foods, the role of population is in fact far more complex. Numerous cases do suggest that population growth and migration are correlated with increasing rates of tropic deforestation. Human alterations of the terrestrial surface of the earth are unprecedented in their pace, magnitude and spatial reach. Of these, none are more important than changes in land cover and land use, (Turner et al, 2013, Lambin, et al; 2009). They are directly related to the loss in biotic diversity worldwide, (Sala, et al; 2010), contribute significantly to local and regional climate change; (Chase; 2009) as well as to the processes contributing to global climate warming; (Houghton, et al; 2009).
Despite improvements in land cover characterization made possible by earth-observing satellite, (Loveland, et al 2014), global and regional land covers and uses are poorly enumerated. It is well recognized, however, that the magnitude of change is high. For example, one estimate holds that the global expansion of croplands since 1850 has consumed some 6 ilion km2 of forest/ woodland and 4.7million km2 of savannas/ grassland, of which respectively, 1.5million km2 and 0.6million km of cropland by category has been abandoned; (Remankattly and Foley, 2009). Population growth is perhaps, the single most commonly mentioned cause of tropical deforestation, (Mather, et al; 2008). High rates of deforestation within a country are linked to high rates of population growth and poverty, and shifting cultivation inn large tracts of forests.
To avoid the unfavorable consequence of land use changes, systematic approaches to intervention with land use should be developed; (Riebsame et al; 2014). Land use should concern the whole process in which h humans plan to alter land use based upon goals and objectives in combination with information on the functioning of the land use system; (FAO, 1989). As Bouma, (2007), put it, land use systems are a complex task which requires different disciplinary backgrounds and different scales of analysis. These should be linked and interrelated; following a logical sequence, (Fresco; 2015; Rindfus and Steven, 2014). public land acquisition
From the outcome of Stockholm conference of (1972), through the efforts of sustainable development, environmental protection especially the pressure on land use should be the challenges to the policy makers and stakeholders in the urban development. Egunjobi, (2010) sees sustainable development as a type of development that does not misuse the very environmental system upon which life depends on. UNCHS; (1996) observed that sustainable development is an integral component of human settlement development and given full consideration to the need and requirement of achieving economic growth and development, social development, social progress, employment opportunity that is in harmony with the environment. With this concept, efforts should be made to see that proper planning and implementation are given to land use policies so that whatever the impact of urbanization. Little effects will be noticed on the land use changes.
3. Trend of Development and Factor of Growth
Since the return to democratic rules in 1999, cities in Ogun state had been witnessing rapid development and physical expansion. It is important to highlight some of the factors responsible for these growths. According to Mabogunje, (2008), the growth has been by fission and fusion. He defines growth by fission as that of breaking up of single but large family compounds into smaller individual ownership of dwelling. Growth by fusion was defined as an outward shift in city boundary through the annexation of surrounding villages in order to accommodate more people.
public land acquisition
The importance of the emerging settlement pattern and growth corridors is that they show a fairly clear concentrated development in the state, separated by scantily populated sub-regions then bound by two relatively more developed sub-regions to the north-west and east respectively. Oyesiku (1998) noted that in terms of physical development planning, virtually all the corridors and around the lagging regions, there are shantytowns and settlements growing laterally along lines of transportation and rather amorphous. It is also important to note that development in the direction of Ojodu, Ibafo and Mowe corridor line would soon extend to Ofada, Owode and to Sagamu and if the present trend of development is allowed to continue, the two distinct corridors would merge within the next two decades. public land acquisition
Figure 1: Settlement Growth Development Axes between Lagos and Ogun States
Several private estate developers have taken advantage of the rapid expansion of Lagos to acquire and develop housing estates in Ogun State especially along the major development axes that also service Lagos. On its part, Ogun State government has housing estates distributed across the state with varying number of housing units, provided by the Ministry of Housing (834 housing units), Ogun State Housing Corporation (351 housing units) and Ogun State Property and Investment Corporation (OPIC) (344 housing units). There are over 40 private real estate companies in Ogun State with an average of over 50 housing units at strategic locations to Lagos especially along Ibafo, Mowe, Shagamu road axis into Ofada along Sagamu – Papalanto road. Many of these estates developed by real estate developers are dominantly housing estate while some could be classified as integrated townships/satellite towns. public land acquisition
Table 1: land Acquisitions in Abeokuta
|No of Acquisition||Year||Purpose||Total acquisition (in Hectare)||Original Acquiring Authority|
|Asero Estate||2||1973 & 2004||Residential Commercial||442||Western Region & Ogun State|
|Alabata & Mowuko||2||1987||Institutional||2,425||FUNAAB|
|Camp||1||1974||Agric||374||Federal Ministry of Agric|
|Ajebo & Kemta||4||1976, 1984& 2004||Residential||430||Housing Corporation|
|Oke -Ata||2||1976,||Residential Industrial||450||Housing Corporation|
|Oke -Ata||2||1980||Agric||230||Federal Ministry of Agric|
|Olomore||1||1980||Residential||80||Federal Ministry of Works|
|Elega||1||1980||Residential||70||Federal Ministry of Works|
|Okemosan||4||1980, 1991, 1996, 2004, 2008 & 2012||Commercial||560||Bureau of Lands|
|Abeokuta – Sagamu Road||20015||Industrial & commercial||1.5 km from both sides of the road||Bureau of lands|
|Lukosi||2||1994||Residential||215||Bureau of lands|
|Olokuta||2||1996||Residential||110||Bureau of Lands|
|Ojere||1||1978||Institution||530||Bureau of Lands|
|Olokemeji||3||1976,1991 & 2012||Residential||320||Bureau of Lands|
|Onijanganjangan||1||1991||Institutional||25||Federal Ministry works|
|Laderin||2||2004, 2008||Residential||95||Bureau of Lands|
Source: Bureau of Lands and Survey, Abeokuta, (2015)
The table above revealed that the fundamental requirement of the Government is to meet the basic requirement of the citizen as a result of teaming population, the need for residential accommodation is very important while the focuses of the governments at all levels are to provide the social services and infrastructural facilities for the people. However, there has not been serious coordination in term of physical development planning. Most of the acquisitions discussed above had witness series of encrogment of one form or the other. These had led to land use changes with different structures and shanty developments. The problems of indigenous land owners have also contributed to the land encrogment and land use change. The government has not seen the need for a better environment as means of solving the economic and political problems through effective land acquisition in the country. public land acquisition
Table 2: Housing Developed by the Ogun State Ministry of Housing
|S/No||Location||No. of Housing Units Provided|
|11||Workers Estate Laderin||272|
Source: Ogun State Ministry of Housing, 2012
Table 3: Housing Developed by the Ogun State Housing Corporation
|S/No||Location||No. of Housing Units Provided|
Source: Ogun State Ministry of Housing, 2012
Several private estate developers have taken advantage of the rapid expansion of Ogun state in term of industrial development to acquire and develop housing estates in Ogun State especially along the major development axes and within the state capital of Abeokuta. Ogun State government has also made several attempts to distribute housing estates across the state with varying number of housing units, provided by the Ministry of Housing (table 2), Ogun State Housing Corporation (table 3) and Ogun State Property and Investment Corporation (OPIC) (344 housing units).There are over 40 private real estate companies in Ogun State with an average of over 50 housing units at strategic locations to Lagos especially along Ibafo, Mowe, Shagamu road axis into Ofada along Sagamu – Papalanto road. Many of these estates developed by real estate developers are dominantly housing estate while some of them have acquired land for layout and outright sale to prospective developers. All these have seriously contributed to land use change in the state.
4. Spatial Distribution and the Physical Planning Implication
Government activities through the administrative mechanism and policy formulations have significant effects on shaping and directing urban growth through the constructions of transportation systems, the establishment of public institutions, hospital and utilities. As discussed earlier the establishment of public institutions, the location of public investments, the development of highways and expressways and the establishment of housing and industrial estates played a significant role in shaping and directing the pattern of growth and physical expansion of Ogun state.
The nature of demand for some of these public works or institutions does not require intra-city locational considerations while very many are point-specific in the sense that they must be located in particular areas of the city where they are required. This is in most cases, the basis for the spatial distribution of public lands which has contributed to the steady growing in the change of uses of available lands around the public uses. public land acquisition
The spatial distribution of public land uses present different problems from smaller but frequently recurring advance acquisitions. For example, encroachment is more common with large-scale acquisition than the smaller ones. The large-scale acquisition also results in the problems of intensified and uncontrolled land uses especially when there is no proper coordination.
The problems that larger acquisition of land caused are the limit, which they formed. A close analysis of the spatial distribution of some of these large acquisitions revealed a concentric form of arrangement around the periphery or suburb. For example in Abeokuta, starting from Idi-Aba is the Federal Medical Center and Kemta Housing estate and extended to Ogun State Television and Federal ministry of Agriculture scheme. Opposite of these are Olokuta Housing estate extended to Sam Ewang estate crossing to Idi Ori extended to Federal Secretariat. Along that axis are State secretariat and some pockets of newly acquired schemes for future developments forming.
The areas that are worse in term of spatial development and proper planning are Sango Ijoko, Agbado, Mowe, Ibafo etc. The areas are generally described as a “modern slum” more or less an extension of city-core development. The failure of Ministry of physical planning to evolve a development scheme to guide physical development, include lack of proper coordination of physical development schemes.
Other problems that were created as a result of government policies on acquisition are the over concentration along certain areas, an extension of infrastructures like electricity and water are made difficult. This situation created an extensive remote and undeveloped rural setting beyond the boundaries of these acquisitions. It should be noted however that because of the poor management of land uses planning. Other public authorities are encroaching indiscriminately into these large public acquisitions especially those whose functions are related to land use planning and control.
5. Problems Associated with the Agencies on Land Use Changes
It should be noted that as laudable as the functions of each agency of government in land acquisition are, the most peculiar problems associated with each agency are manpower and lack of modern equipment to carry out the day to day activities. In the Bureau of Lands and Survey there are vacancies in almost all the divisions and these vacancies are at senior posts. The same thing in the Zonal Planning offices where the majority of the official are middle-level officers. The implications of these are that the effectiveness in the management and control of physical development in the state will be limited. Not only this, the influence of the executive (politician) heading these agencies also contributed to the Land use change problems.
public land acquisition
The most unfortunate aspect of this problem is the level of discipline of few officials in these agencies. Many of these officials collect money for illegal development thereby causing slums and inconsistency in physical development in the city. It should be noted again that government policies and programmes also contributed to the problems of land use changes in the city especially the Land Use Act of 1978 where every land within the state is in the hand of state Governor who allocate the land to his friends and political associates indiscriminately.
It is desirable that the bureau of Lands and Survey which is the coordinating ministry for land acquisition and management; issuance of the certificate of occupancy and or clearance of private properties carry out updating of all acquisition records, re-organize it staff and devise better ways of handling its statutory roles. Accordingly, all public lands should be properly coordinated on appropriate base maps or gridded sheets. In addition, a register of public acquisitions should be opened and properly maintained. The register should contain such information as the acquiring authority, the purpose of acquisition, the location and area extent and the particulars of gazette publication.
public land acquisition
To further assist proper coordination and effective control of physical development, the government should establish more survey controls and reinstate the damaged ones due to road construction. It is also being suggested that more GIS offices should be established in all the three geopolitical sections of the state. Adequate funding should be made available to acquire more computer equipment for effective storage, analysis and retrieval of basic planning information relating to public land whenever needed. It is also suggested that all government agencies whether Federal, State or Local Governments should have a Central information pool where up-to-date maps and plans and other relevant information could be made available for educating the whole populace. Furthermore, Geographical information system is recommended for the processing, analyzing and dissemination of information on land uses in the state. Federal Government could be of assistance in this way through the Liaison Office and Federal Ministry of Works where all records of Federal acquisitions in the state could be kept.
Government intervention in the urban land market will continue to be on the increase due to growing population, a desire to provide new or upgraded services to serve an existing population, changing technology and so on. Accordingly, the present size, shape and structure of land use must be the concern of the stakeholders. From the discussions in this study, it has been observed that urbanization in Ogun state is at a very steady rate and has contributed serious pressure on land use and land cover changes in the recent time. This has resulted in a high cost of land in urban areas.
public land acquisition
Many of the public acquisitions within the city have been affected by the illegal encroachment from private individuals to meet their requirements. Government policies and programs also contributed to the serious pressure on land use changes through the acquisition of more than required land for public uses.
public land acquisition
Having noted these problems, it was suggested, however, that government should formulate appropriate planning policies for the organization
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