International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration
Volume 5, Issue 1, November 2018, Pages 50-55
Women Participation in the Implementation of REDD + Program “Reduction Emission from Deforestation and Degradation” in Kapuas District Central Kalimantan
1 Ise Afitah, 2 Mariaty
1 2 Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya, Indonesia
Abstract: This study aims to examine the extent of women’s participation in the implementation of the KFCP (Kalimantan Forest and Carbon Partnership) Project in Central Kalimantan and provides recommendations for the women requirements in the context of developing strategies and programs related to the project area. The expected outcomes of this study may provide the necessary information for monitoring and evaluation in the implementation of project activities in particular matters relating to women and their participation for future program improvement. Sampling is done by using purposive sampling technique, targeting several respondents such as community leaders, traditional leaders, village officials and village communities, especially women. Data collection was done by observation, interview, and documentation study. The data obtained were analyzed by a descriptive method. The result of the research shows that the participation rate of women is feeble, mostly only at the level of Tokenism, where the role is only heard and allowed to argue, but their views and opinions have not influenced policy. The participation level is lower in the village of Sei Ahas and the village of Katimpun, only at the Non-Participations level, because their involvement is to educate not to express opinions about REDD + projects. This lack of participation is due to socio-political and cultural societies that still retain traditional gender roles which only locate and position women for domestic affairs thus undermining their position in public spaces. Besides, discrimination by male leaders and their lack of self-esteem, and low levels of education weaken them to play a role in their village community even in the implementation of the KFCP project.
Keywords: Organizational citizenship behavior, Motivation, Intention, Knowledge sharing behavior, Performance
Various project activities have been carried out in the work area of KFCP in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan. In this regard, full community participation becomes mandatory for project developers to achieve optimum results in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts. The pilot project for REDD + implemented by KFCP (Kalimantan Forest and Carbon Partnership) in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan has been performed since 2008, for its strategy starting with the Preparation Phase (2007-2008) including the Policy Identification, Communication and Consultation Stage. The second stage began at (2009-2012) is carried out in the step of Requirement Setting, Methodology, and Institutions. The third stage is the full implementation phase implemented in 2013 (Dephut, 2009). Women’s participation in development implementation and environmental projects should be of particular concern as women’s interests are often ignored, perceived as weak and considered second-class citizens, so in some of their rights policies are not accommodated. To see and assess the extent to which women’s participation in a project, in this case, a REDD + pilot project in Central Kalimantan, it is essential to conduct small research that can answer and illustrate how women’s participation in the KFCP region has been. In general, this study aims to examine and assess the extent of women’s participation in the implementation of the KFCP Project in Central Kalimantan and to provide recommendations for women needs in the context of developing strategies and programs related to the women interest in the project area. The expected results of this study are to provide the necessary information in the context of monitoring and evaluation in the implementation of project activities, mainly relating to women and their participation and as a reflection for future program improvements.
2. Literature Review
REDD+ or Reducing Emissions From Deforestation And Forest Degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) was first negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2005, with the objective of mitigating climate change through reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases through enhanced forest management in developing countries. Most of the critical REDD+ decisions were completed by 2013, with the final pieces of the rulebook finished in 2015.
In the last two decades, various studies estimate that land use change, including deforestation and forest degradation, accounts for 12-29% of global greenhouse gas emissions. For this reason, the inclusion of reducing emissions from land use change is considered essential to achieve the objectives of the UNFCCC. (Fearnside, 2000). A gender-sensitive approach to REDD+ decision-making is required for REDD+ to efficiently, effectively and equitably contribute to poverty reduction efforts and biodiversity conservation. Despite this, research has shown that women are more likely than men to be absent from decision-making, the literature provides many arguments (effectiveness- and equity-based) to support the view that women’s participation in the REDD+ decision-making process is essential. Empirical studies have shown that involving women in decision-making at all levels has positive effects on many forest management issues, including resource sustainability, forest regeneration and conflict management (Mai et al. 2011). Studies have identified various factors that influence women’s participation in decision-making. These include: (i) cultural and social norms (Sunam and McCarthy 2010); (ii) social perceptions that forestry is a male domain; (iii) laws and regulations that deliberately exclude women; (iv) under the representation of women in decision-making bodies; (v) lack of recognition of heterogeneity among women (Colfer 2005).
This research was conducted in 6 villages in KFCP project in Kapuas District: Petak Puti Village, Tumbang Murui Village, Katunjung Village, Sei Ahas Village, Katimpun Village, and Kalumpang Village. Sampling is done by using purposive sampling technique, targeting several respondents such as community leaders, traditional leaders, village officials and village communities, especially women. To obtain research data, the data collection technique used are:
- Observation is a data collection activity conducted by direct observation in the field so that it can describe factually, thoroughly and in detail about the state of the area, human activities and the context in which the business is located.
- Interview and FGD (Focus Group Discussion) is a data collection activity conducted by asking questions to respondents with some problems following the indicators to be achieved from this research, the number of respondents is uncertain according to the response of the community who can attend. Besides, FGDs are conducted simultaneously to inventory the needs and expectations of women in the project area.
- Study documentation; it is the primary activity, because of the collection of research results are widely available within the same research location. It is essential to obtain written data through books, pictures, photographs to support data collected through observation and questionnaires.
The data obtained were analyzed by a descriptive method. Descriptive methods is an analysis technique used to analyze data by describing the data that have been collected following field conditions on research.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Implementation of REDD + Projects by KFCP in the Village Project Location
The objective of the KFCP project implementation in Central Kalimantan is related to environmental management (natural resources) and community (empowerment). The success of a project indeed will not be separated from the participation of the community at the work site, which became the project implementer. Programs implemented in seven villages and several hamlets that are working areas of KFCP, are primarily REDD + projects in handling of Greenhouse Gases Emission (Greenhouse Gases) through the physical and ecological administration of: forest and land fire prevention and control, restoration hydrological systems, rehabilitation of peatlands for increased land cover, and peat hydrology to prevent degradation and peatland oxidation processes. In addition to undertaking REDD + projects, the results of interviews with village officials show four programs being implemented by KFCP namely:
This activity is performed to improve the welfare of the community by providing assistance for economic development for community enterprises. The data say that there is ± Rp. 1.7 billion of project funds were allocated for the activities of the Guides Farmer group to be used for rubber plantation development, superior rubber seed support (B-260), and traditional fishery development. According to (Dewi, 2012) the framework of developing the SME sector (Small and medium-sized enterprises), the community proposed a savings and loan program in the future will work in collaboration with the CU (Credit Union), a financial institution in the region. Funds allocated for this activity according to information obtained about Rp. 239,779,006, – for each village For managing village level activities, KFCP initiates to form TP (Monitoring Team) and TPK (Activity Management Team) responsible for controlling and implementing activities at the village level.
Reforestation program conducted in the village of Petak Puti in the form of seed planting. In the village of Petak Puti and Tumbang Muroi are not rehabilitated, because the forest area around is still in good forest condition, although it is prone to burn at some point due to peatland containing flammable organic material. While the Kalumpang village, Sei Ahas and Katunjung reforestation are made in the form of replanting of the former Gas Power Plant.
c) Fire Control and Prevention
In this activity, we formed a group called Fire Control Team (RPK). Each group member will receive training on forest fire management, fire control, and drilling wells. To support the performance of RPK also planned the existence of operational costs and the procurement of manual equipment in the form of machetes; water reservoirs; single pump and radio SSB (Radio Orari) for communication and information. This activity is based on community participation; it is expected that high awareness of lousy impact from forest and land fires are tremendous.
d) Hydrological Restoration
In addition to the above activities, there was hydrological restoration around existing canals in the former Gas Power Plant. Hydrological restoration is done by making trench blocking to regulate water management to improve soil moisture, reduce drought impact and assist plant regeneration process. This activity also involves the community to determine the location of making/laying the block, as well as implementing for the making of the intersection, and its maintenance.
4.2 Women’s Participation in the KFCP Project
4.2.1 Level of Participation
In practicing a long-term REDD + process, including policy instruments, standards, and procedures to be met by the developer, a policy should be implemented to minimize the negative impact of project implementation, as it will affect the area and scope of community life that exists around the project. One of the policies that must be done is to require the participation of villagers, especially women.
Participation does not distinguish between tribe, religion, family relations, physical condition, gender and age. However, according to Pranoto (2001), human involvement can be identified by different stimulations and impositions. Thus, it is necessary to distinguish voluntary participation and the nature of the provocation (instigated partnership). The same is true of the involvement for women, in a REDD + pilot project, as stated in the Environmental Law, namely Law No.32 / 2009 para. 2,3 and 4 which indicates that:
1) Everyone is entitled to environmental education, access to information, access to participation, and access to justice in fulfilling the right to a tasty and healthy environment.
2) Everyone has the right to make suggestions and objections to business plans and activities that are expected to have an impact on the environment.
3) Everyone has the right to play a role in the protection and management of the situation by the laws and regulations.
To assess how KFCP implements women’s participation rates in REDD + pilot projects, the following table data shows the participation of women in choosing the commodities to be planted in the village for livelihood activities described in Table 1 below:
Table 1: Analysis of Local Livelihoods
|Village||Women Participations||Participation Level|
|Petak Puti||YES||Less than men
|Tumbang Muroi||YES||Less than men
|Sei Ahas||YES||Equivalent to men
|Katunjung||YES||Equivalent to men
|Kalumpang||YES||Less than men
Source: Past to Present in the Central Kalimantan Ex‐Mega Rice Project Area
Then data on women’s involvement were also reported in several Focus Group Discussions (FGD) meetings. This activity is dedicated to providing material on gender, forest, and climate change issues. Table 2 shows the participation rates of women in the KFCP project according to the author’s observations at the FGD:
Table 2: The Participation Rates Of Women in Six Villages
|Petak Puti||Informing (3rd stage)||Mostly only at the level of Tokenism, where the role is only heard and allowed to argue, but their views and opinions have not influenced the policy|
|Katunjung||Consultation (4th stage)||Included in Tokenism category, located at the 4th level, is better one level than Informing. Women at this level they have been positioned to provide feedback (source of information for the project), and able to propose or to announce something.|
|Katimpun||Manipulation (2nd stage)||Manipulation is the second lowest level in the eight steps of participation by Arnstein (1969), at this stage of women’s involvement only on educational goals|
Source: KFCP Project
The low participation of women in the KFCP project in this study indicates a lack of awareness to increase the involvement of women in every project activity. In this case, women do not have the opportunity and the power to influence and make decisions in the project. Their existence is deliberately weakened by the social structure and system built by KFCP in its participation. Although there is a special meeting for women through FGD, it is not done continuously so it has not been able to break the confidence of women to do more and give inputs that can influence the existing policy. This fact identifies that gender understanding and equality within the scope of the project are still fragile.
4.2.2 Obstacles to Participation
In rural areas of Central Kalimantan, traditional gender roles are maintained, with women accountable for household chores, raising children, harvesting crops, searching for food from nature, and fishing. Women carry a significant burden by working indoors or outdoors and tend to engage in labor-intensive activities, but economically women are less privileged than men. Men enjoy greater social mobility, which can not be enjoyed proportionally by female heads of household, especially in remote villages. Women tend to be silent compared to men in public affairs in their communities, and their role is overlooked in decision making in the public sphere. The Dayak women in this project location mostly have a dual role in the smallest community. In the family, they should be responsible for the housewife’s duties and seek the adequacy of the family’s economy by seeking additional income, so participating in a REDD + project is their last priority.
The socio-political and cultural life of our rural society has compartmentalized the social status between women and men. The majority of women become second-class citizens, and feel discriminatory in their social environment to participate, express opinions and cannot negotiate well with both the community and the project developers. Women are only positioned as beneficiaries of the project; their voices are poorly heard by community leaders who usually dominate in the decision-making process. Women, especially those who have the role of a head of household should allow male or male members of the male family to make decisions about what they need and what they prefer.
Another obstacle to women’s participation in the REDD + DA project area is the very weak educational background of their community, their access to a decent education is limited, with the economic limitations of many people at the pre-prosperous level and unable to obtain feasibly, even illiterate. In every FGD implementation, for attendance, some participants should even be assisted to write their name. On the other hand, distribution of information on the project is also limited, socialization and meeting invitations are limited and dominated by men. Besides, general knowledge in the form of bulletin boards not utilized optimally. The information media has not used the media and language that is easy to understand. There are still many people who generally do not know what climate change is. Another critical factor is how to give maximum space to the women community in the project site villages to be involved, not only to be part of project implementation but also in project planning with specific methods.
Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded as follows:
- The working area of REDD + DA Project by KFCP located in the former Gas Power Station one million hectares in Block A and Block E. Work programs related to the physical management of the area and hydrology and the development of alternative livelihoods for the community: livelihood, reforestation, hydrological restoration and fire control and prevention.
- The participation rate of women is feeble, mostly only at the level of Tokenism, where the role is only heard and allowed to argue, but their views and opinions have not influenced policy. Even in the village of Sei Ahas and the village of Katimpun the participation level is lower, only at the Non-Participations level, because their involvement is to educate not to express opinions about REDD + projects.
- This lack of participation is due to socio-political and cultural societies that retain traditional gender roles, which only locate and position women for domestic affairs thus undermining their position in public spaces. Beside this, discrimination by male leaders and their lack of self-esteem and low levels of education weaken them to play a role in their village community even in the implementation of the KFCP project.
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