Journal of International Business Research and Marketing
Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2018, Pages 32-39
Dark Leadership Impact on Psychological Well-being and Work-Family Conflict: Implications for Project Success of Bahrain Companies
1 Hussein Ghaleb Abdo Saleh, 2 Wang Hu,
3 Hesham Mohammed Abdo Hassan,4 Madina Khudaykulova
1 2 3 4 Wuhan University of Technology, School of Management, Wuhan, China
Abstract: This paper examines dark personality traits of leaders involved in management and proposes a conceptual framework for future studies. Based on the personality characteristics identified using Hogan Development survey, the influence of personality traits is hypothesized to affect the well-being of employees and consequently, business success. The study shows a negative relationship between the personality traits of leaders and the psychological well-being of employees and work-family conflict. According to the developed concept, there is a negative impact on business and project success due to the work-life conflict and psychological well-being of employees supervised by project leaders with a negative personality. Most of the studies in this area has focused on identifying the positive aspects of leadership, thus limiting the discussion on the implication of dark leadership. The originality of this paper can be described in the context of research on project leaders, whose negative traits are linked towards business and project failure. This dissertation contributes to leadership literature by identifying the significance of negative personality traits and by presenting the link to business failures.
Keywords: Dark side of leadership, HDS, Well-being, Family and work conflict, Project failure
It is true that majority of companies are following the vertical hierarchy (when managers give the orders and lead their team). It is convenient to have one person who is responsible for others than asking each of participants to take the responsibility. By dividing tasks and combining the results into one project, the leader has obligations to be good in management, motivation, and inspiration of others. Nowadays, more and more companies try to pay attention to the emotional conditions of their employees. By offering them additional bonuses like visits to the gym, swimming pool, giving them special rooms for the rest. During the day, managers believe that employees will enjoy their place of work more, and it can positively affect the results of their work. Modern companies publish their annual CSR reports, revealing the favorable conditions for their employees. However, the interaction between manager and employee can spoil or vice versa improve the perception of working conditions. Moreover, due to the fact that employees are executives of the project, its failure can be related to the low competence of employees or some technical issues. Nonetheless, according to Rezvani et al. (2016), the success of the project depends mostly on the leader. The main aim of the article is to investigate the impact of dark leadership on employees (well-being, family-work conflict). The current article provides the overview of the literature, revealing the relationship between leaders and employees. Moreover, along with the consequences, recommendations on how to improve the negative impact of dark leadership are provided. There are many studies devoted to positive aspects of leader’s personality. Nonetheless, there is a gap of studies examining negative characteristics which can negatively affect the employees’ performance. The same as there is an objective opinion, Hogan & Hogan (2001) mentioned that there are two perspectives to evaluate the leaders’ effectiveness. The first one includes the evaluation of leader’s actions from his/her position while the second one is related to the observers’ evaluation. In this regard, colleagues and employees are those who assess the leader’s role and influence. In addition to it, as employees are namely those who are under influence of their leader, they can estimate his/her competence as the leader. Thus, the observers’ perspective is more objective. Following the trace of examining the influence of dark leadership done by Hogan & Hogan (2001), in the current study, the leadership is also evaluated from the employees’ viewpoint. The main objective of this study is to explain if negative personality characteristics affect negative organizational outcomes, such as project and business failure. The second objective is to evaluate whether project leaders are “bad bosses” and to describe what kind of traits are common for “leaders’ project leaders”.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Dark Side of Leadership
The topic on “dark leadership” has resulted in the emergence of some arguments in the literature. Researchers have reported dark leadership as involving toxic, destructive and abusive leaders (Padilla, Hogan, & Kaiser 2007). Moreover, there are various types of behaviors which can apply to the nature of dark leadership such as laughing at employees, lying to them and deceiving them, blaming the wrong person for the mistake and discrimination. The research shows that dark leadership is associated with the decreased employee performance, increased level of psychological distress and low level of job satisfaction and commitment. Moreover, it has been discovered that increased levels of abusive leadership are associated with increased level of work-family conflict. Hogan and Hogan (2001) found out that failure of the leaders is mainly explained by the disorders which are common in their personality. Another research conducted by Hogan (2005) discovered that personality traits of the individual are critical in determining his leadership style. Moreover, this is followed by the attitude of employees and team functioning, which are considered as two important organizational variables to impact on organizational performance (Krasikova, Green, & LeBreton 2013).
2.2 Project Failure
Every project charter consists of the project scope where main objectives, milestones and necessary resources of the project are described. Project is considered as a failure when it could not meet its deadline and fails to meet the requirements of the client. Organizations depend on the leaders as they are considered as an individual who is believed to take control over the present situation and leads the members of the team to reach the common goal. However, the majority of the leaders are believed to fail as they may direct their subordinates through the wrong path or they fail to meet the original plan (Avolio, 2009). Thus, it is important to take into consideration the certain factors which leaders may fail to understand and eventually contribute to the failure of the project. One of the important factors which lead project failure is that leaders fail to recognize the talents and skills of their subordinates in their team (Babcock, 2005). Precisely, every organization consists of people with the certain set of skills and talents. In this regard, the leaders who fail to recognize the talents and their skills are considered as the main contributor to project failure. Secondly, the attitude of the team members towards the project also determines the possible success or failure of the project (Baker, 2006). Precisely, if the project team consists of members who always strive to please their leaders or cadre of employees who agree with what leaders say is more likely to lead to the failure of the project. The review of the literature implies that these type of “yes people” always agree with what their leaders say, and they are less likely to take independent decisions regarding the facts. In other words, these types of people are more prone to make blind decisions, which will consequently lead to the failure of the project. In this regard, it is important to mention that choosing the right people with the right set of skills plays a crucial role in determining the success of the project (Judge, 2002). However, many leaders only choose subordinates who agree with their opinions and decisions. Moreover, most of the leaders personalize the organizational success thinking that it is what they have achieved themselves. By this way, they fail to give enough motivation to their subordinates. It is important to mention that the motivation of employees plays a significant role in achieving project success.
2.3 Relationship of Leadership and Project Failure
2.3.1 Employees’ Well-being
Many researchers consider the well-being of people only from the economic point. Thus, Rezvani (2016) found that providing right direction is the major factor in the increase of the well-being. Also, Mayer (2008) emphasized the importance of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations well. Nonetheless, Hu et al. (2007) stated that mental health is not the components of the well-being, it is the basis for better perception of other elements leading to it. Moreover, based on the fact that vast majority of the researchers consider the drivers of well-being, such perspective can be considered as a positive one. The person needs to be satisfied with the social life. As the majority of the time, people spent at their working place, the pleasant environment are important for building person’s well-being.
However, the main contribution of Hu et al. (2007) is that they measured negative aspects as well. By finding components, which decrease the level of well-being, it is possible to provide the universal pattern for well-being creation and increase. Referring to Hu et al. (2007), there are two ways to evaluate well-being: “hedonic” and “eudaimonic” ones (Hu et al., 2007). The former provides the vision of well-being from a positive site, considering happiness as the main factor – the effect. Meanwhile, eudemonic focuses on the provision of optimal conditions for the person – the functioning. Robinson, S. L., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994) noticed that not only material things lead to employees’ satisfaction. The psychological aspect is not the secondary factor. Moreover, they found that violation of psychological contract leads to dissatisfaction, conflicts, and distrust and as a result, dismissal. The violation of the psychological aspects of the contract is built throughout the time. Based on this, researchers interviewed the group of observers, before being hired and two years later. Thus, more than half of their respondents declared the violation in terms of psychological relationships. Mayer et al. (1996) also found that high emotional intelligence improves the work environment, allows building better relationships with employees.
2.3.2 Family-Work Conflict
Netemeyer et al. (1996) proposed the measurement for work-family conflict, distinguishing it from family-work conflict. Referring to Netemeyer et al. (1996), work is an integral part of each person’s life. Nonetheless, another part of it is devoted to family or personal life. The working person has to combine both of these sides. And starting with the choice of profession, the person has to find the compromise between both of these sides. There are many cases in the history when people were fighting for their rights in terms of working conditions. There are many facts when people demanded the decrease of the working days, hours. These days in Sweden, for instance, there is the experiment of implementing a 6-hour working day. The reason for this is the work-family conflict.
2.3.3 Effects on Project and Failure
Only two studies reviewed, examined the relationship between destructive leadership and performance: De Hoogh and Den Hartog (2008) assessed perceived top management team effectiveness. Detert, Trevino, Burris, and Andiappan (2007) used different measures on the organizational level such as operating profit and actual turnover. De Hoogh and Den Hartog found no relationship between despotic leadership and organizational performance. Detert and colleagues only found one significant relationship out of the five they tested, and that was with product loss (in this case, food loss). From these two studies, we cannot derive a clear conclusion regarding the relationship between destructive leadership and organizational performance. It seems that most of the results point to a zero or rather a low relationship, which is probably due to the fact that there is a myriad of influences on organizational performance and (bad) leadership is only one of them. In addition, based on our definition, we focused narrowly on destructive leadership rather than more general destructive leader behavior. Destructive leader behavior might be more strongly related to organizational performance as it would have a more direct effect on organizational performance (e.g., in the sense of stealing or fraud) than destructive leadership. At the same time, destructive leadership might have a long-term effect via low follower motivation or high turnover rates, where destructive leader behaviors might have more immediate effects. As very few studies included organizational performance data, this is another area where research into destructive leadership can be enhanced by using objective data. More research is needed to examine in how far destructive leadership is related not only to ‘soft’ criteria but also to ‘hard’ performance data. Likely, the relationship between destructive leadership and organizational performance will be mediated by follower-related attitudes such as job satisfaction and well-being which will likely lead to lower follower productivity.
3. Model and Hypotheses
The research model was constructed based on a literature review of studies linking personal traits and certain workplace and organizational outcomes. Business-Scan 360 (B-Scan) is a special tool designed to measure the developmental needs in managerial level (Babiak and Hare). Precisely, it is used to evaluate the degree of individual responsiveness towards different organizational goals. Having been constructed based on Psychopathic- Checklist-Revised constructs, B-Scan 360 consists of four important dimensions underlying psychopathy which include interpersonal, effective, lifestyle and antisocial. The research proposes the relationship between the dark side of leadership and factors explaining employee well-being.
Figure 1: Research Model
Following propositions are derived from a review of the literature:
Proposition 1 – Certain negative sides of leadership traits identified within Hogan Development Survey are positively related to the psychological well-being of an employee, which will, in turn, lead to business failure.
Proposition 2 – Certain negative sides of leadership traits identified within Hogan Development Survey are positively related to the work-family conflict.
Proposition 3 – As a result of negative sides of leaders, employee well-being is positively related to business/project failure.
3.1 Hogan Dark Traits of Personality and Psychological Well-being
Hypothesis 1.1: Excitable negatively affects psychological well-being: People with high scores on the excitable scale are more likely to be disappointed in relationships. They are more to expect that they will be treated unfairly or they might be just ignored. Therefore, they are always ready for the signs of mistreatment. (Krasikova, Green, & LeBreton , 2013).
Hypothesis 1.2: Skeptical negatively predicts psychological well-being: Skeptical people are considered to be cynical, distrustful, and doubting others true intentions. Based on the nature of these type of people, skeptical people need quite considerable attention and they always question the issue being discussed. (Grandey et al., 2005).
Hypothesis 1.3: Cautious has a negative impact on psychological well-being: Cautious people are constantly fearful of being criticized and shamed. Therefore, they always try to prevent situations involving mistakes which might lead them to embarrassing situations.
Hypothesis 1.4: Reserved negatively predicts psychological well-being: The reserved scale denotes that this type of people is less likely to be interested in the feelings of others. Low scores on this scale imply that people are less concerned about the feelings of others while high scorers in this dimension mean that this type of people can be indifferent to the feelings of the other people. Thus, it can be mentioned that people under the leadership of these type of people are more likely to feel the psychological stress.
Hypothesis 1.5: Leisurely negatively affects psychological well-being: People who achieve high scores on “Leisure” scale are more confident about their skills and abilities. Conversely, they are less likely to consider and respect the abilities of other employees’ skills and abilities.
Hypothesis 1.6: Bold has a negative influence on psychological well-being: Bold scale refers to the people who are self-confident, fearless and self-assured. They always strive to achieve their goals, and when they make mistakes, they are less likely to learn from their mistakes (Grandey et al., 2005). Fewer scores in bold scale imply that these type of people are less likely to look for and complete challenging assignments whereas high score in bold scale means that these type of people are quite confident and they think they deserve special attention and treatment. Thus, it can be mentioned that high scorers on the bold scale negatively impact on the psychological well-being of their subordinates.
Hypothesis 1.7: Mischievous has a negative effect on psychological well-being: Mischievous scale indicates that people in this scale are characterized as being bright, impulsive, adventurous and risk seeking (Tepper, 2000). Low scores on the scale imply that people can be mainly conservative and unadventurous.
Hypothesis 1.8: Colorful negatively predicts psychological well-being: This type of people think that others find them interesting to talk to, very engaging and worth of paying attention. They always try to attract attention, and they are good at making dramatic entrances and exits (Padilla, Hogan, & Kaiser 2007).
Hypothesis 1.9: Imaginative has a negative impact on psychological well-being: People with high scores on “imaginative” scale has a very interesting and unusual way of thinking about the world. Moreover, these people love to socialize and interact with other people about their insights and views. They stay alert for new ways of seeing, thinking and expressing themselves and they like to observe the unusual way of people that they use to express themselves. (Frye, 2004).
Hypothesis 1.10: Diligent has a negative influence on psychological well-being: People with high scores on the diligent scale are quite careful, precise and critical performance of others. However, at their worst, these type of people can be overly preoccupied with orderliness, rules, and control. Therefore, at times they can be quite inflexible. (Padilla, Hogan, & Kaiser 2007). Thus, in many circumstances, they may over delegate the task to others.
Hypothesis 1.11: Dutiful negatively predicts psychological well-being: Dutiful people always try to be deeply concerned about getting along well with authority figures. These type of people constantly look at others for emerging opportunities and to show their loyalty and commitment to the organizations which they work for (Krasikova, Green, & LeBreton, 2013). Observation of these type of people show that these people have good nature, they are polite. In the role of managers, they will do everything required by their managers (Bruck et al., 2002).
3.2 Hogan Dark Traits of Personality and Work-Family Conflict
Hypothesis 2.1: Excitable has a positive impact on work-family conflict: As it was discussed this type of scale mainly concerns working passionately and with enthusiasm. Low scores usually indicate that people show low levels of passion and urgency while high emotions show dramatic emotional peaks (Greenhaus & Beutell, 2004; Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 2000).
Hypothesis 2.2: Skeptical positively predicts work-family conflict: As it was discovered, skeptical people try to stay alert for the signs of deceptive behavior in others and when they observe such kind of behavior they focus on taking necessary measures. High scores in skeptical scale imply that people are quite negative and cynical (Atonakis et al., 2012).
Hypothesis 2.3: Cautious positively affects work-family conflict: As it was identified, a cautious scale is often concerned with risk aversion, fear of failure and avoidance of criticism. The literature shows that there are three main scales which are part of cautious scale including avoidant, fearful and unassertive. Many studies have discovered that cautious positively impacts on work-family conflict. Especially, high scorers in this scale are more likely to be risk averse regardless of possible risk assessment (Harris et al., 2007).
Hypothesis 2.4: Reserved has a positive influence on work-family conflict: The reserved scale is used to describe the people who are careless about the feelings of the other people (Bruck et al., 2002). As the research shows, high scorers in this scale are indifferent to the feelings of the other people while low scorers are too curious about the feelings of other people. The study found that high scores in reserved scale are positively associated with work-family conflict.
Hypothesis 2.5: Leisurely positively predicts work-family conflict: Leisurely often involves appearing to be cooperative and friendly. However, it is mostly about following one’s agenda without recognizing of others. Leisurely people may often seem helpful, and they are likely to listen and consider other people’s opinion. Still, they prefer to follow their own agenda’s (Atonakis et al., 2012).
Hypothesis 2.6: Bold positively affects work-family conflict: Bold scale describes people who are confident, fearless and self-assured. As people always try to succeed, in case if they fail they will not recognize their mistakes. It is important to mention that high score of bold scale means that individual can be overly confident.
Hypothesis 2.7: Mischievous positively predicts work-family conflict: This type of people often described as more being prone to risk-taking. Moreover, they are known to be impulsive and manipulative as well. They take actions without paying attention to predefined rules and standards. Therefore, they are more likely to encounter to face various problems which they may find to impossible overcome. (Hogan, 2005).
Hypothesis 2.8: Colorful has a positive effect on work-family conflict: Colorful scale describes the type of people who always want to be the center of attention. Low scorers in the category are mainly described as being modest and unassuming and quiet while high scores indicate people can be attention seeking and dramatic. (Padilla, Hogan, & Kaiser 2007).
Hypothesis 2.9: Imaginative has a positive influence on work-family conflict: Imaginative scale is mainly applicable to the category of unconventional people. Majority of the ideas proposed by these types of people are considered to be ahead of time, and according to the findings of the study, these types of people have special talents and abilities.
Hypothesis 2.10: Diligent positively affects work-family conflict: Diligent people are known as hardworking. They have a special set of standards for others who are working with them. They tend to be a perfectionist about their work, and they are too fussy about their timing (Grandey et al., 2005). They are also known to be detail oriented, and they accomplish each work with great attention, and they want to work competitively. Thus, they also expect more from the people working with them.
Hypothesis 2.11: Dutiful has a positive influence on work-family conflict: These type of people always focus on pleasing others. Their indecisive nature makes it difficult for their subordinates to finish the projects on time and this may lead additional investment for time, energy and resources which might be wasteful (Grandey et al., 2005). Thus, people may have to focus only on the work by ignoring their family roles. As a result, it will lead to the creation of the work-family conflict (Bruck et al., 2002).
3.3 Psychological Well-being and Work-family Conflict of Employees and Project Failure
Hypothesis 3.1: Psychological well-being negatively predicts business/project failure: Psychological well-being is regarded as one of the widely discussed topics in the literature. Psychological well-being of the employee is considered to play an important role in improving the effectiveness of the employees (Einarsen et al., 2007). The increased effectiveness of the employees is directly related to the improved.
Hypothesis 3.2: Work-family conflict positively affects business/project failure: Work-family conflict has been in the attention of the different scientists to understand the critical factors which influence organizational performance and employee effectiveness. The literature shows that work-family conflict is regarded as the most debated topics in this area.
The study was focused on the investigation of the impact of dark leadership on the employees’ well-being, which can result in their performance. As there are many definitions of dark leadership, the current research tried to overview the common known definitions and narrow down to those which correspond to the purpose of the study. Thus, 12 traits provided by Hogan were chosen to represent the characteristics of dark leadership. To examine the psychological well-being of the participants of the survey, the General Health Questionnaire was utilized. This method was firstly introduced by Goldberg and Williams and later was tested for reliability and validity by other researchers (Makowska, Merecz, Moscicka, & Kolasa, 2002).
As there are 12 traits of dark leadership, the questionnaire was divided into 12 sections of questions. The main aim of each section is to investigate whether the emotional and psychological conditions of the observance can be related to a certain trait.
In addition to it, the 12 item of psychological well-being part is equally distributed between positive and negative items. The judgment whether the question should be related to a positive item is based on its wording. For instance, positively worded questions (1, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 12) is a positive item. The frequency or emotional rate starts from highest point ‘Better than usual’, and decreasing to ‘Much less than usual’. The 4-point Likert scale was chosen code the response.
The survey was executed among the employees of companies in Bahrain. Based on the statistics, the average age of employment in Bahrain is from 16 to 65, and the survey was restricted accordingly. During the process, I sourced Hogan’s Development Survey, which is the most common tool for measuring the dark side of personality. Furthermore, the literature covered focused on the work-related conflicts that may be a consequence of bad leadership, as well as business, new venture, and project failures.
5. Data Analysis and Results
5.1 Multiple Regression
Through multiple linear regressions, the impact of input variables on the output variables is shown. Beta coefficients were calculated for the structural model and are reported in the table below. P value and t-value indicate the significance of relationships between variables. The multiple regression equations take the following form.
Where: yi is the value of the dependent variable, βi is the estimated coefficient of the xi variable and ui is the error term.
In the regression part, we focused on each hypothesis separately. Thus, first of all, the relationships between Hogan traits and psychological well-being were tested. After establishing the existence of connections between Hogan traits, psychological well-being, and project success, it is necessary to find out the character of those relationships. Here it is clear that all the variables were included in the model at once during the first step. Thereby, Excitable, Skeptical, Cautious, Reserved, Leisurely, Mischievous, Bold, Colorful, Imaginative, Diligent and Dutiful are predictors while Psychological well-being is the dependent variable. The following table 5-1 is a summary of the regression model, containing four indicators r, R square, Adjusted R square and standard error of the estimate. However, we pay particular attention to R square. Thus, 37 % the variance of Psychological well-being is accounted for input variables of this model. The coefficient of determination R squared is a measure of the goodness of fit of the fitted regression line to a set of data; that is, we shall find out how “well” the sample regression line fits the data. R squared is defined as
Where: is the estimated value of the regression line, is the mean value of the dependent variable and is the observed value of the dependent variable.
Table 1: Model Summary
Table 2: ANOVA PSY Well-being
|Model||Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|a. Dependent Variable: PSY Well-being|
|b. Predictors: (Constant). Excitable. Leisurely. Cautious. Dutiful. Mischievous. Colorful. Imaginative. Reserved. Diligent. Bold. skeptical|
According to the model summary, 44% of the variance in psychological well-being is accounted for R^2=0.196, while Adjusted R^2=0.124. According to ANOVA table, the p-value of the regression is 0.003, which is in line with the standard level of significance.
Table 3: Coefficients
According to the table, cautious have negative beta (β = -0.37). It means that project leaders with a cautious type of personality have a significant negative impact on employees’ well-being. Along with cautious, excitable managers also have a negative influence on the psychological well-being of their subordinates (β = -0.27). Unlike two above mentioned Hogan traits, leisurely and dutiful type of personality for project leaders can have quite a positive influence on the psychological well-being of employees. This can be seen from regression coefficient with a positive sign. Leisurely is a positive predictor of psychological well-being with β = 0.34, while for dutiful this coefficient is β = 0.25.
Although skeptical, diligent, bold and reserved have a negative beta value, which is in line with the theoretical assumption, those relationships cannot be accepted due to the high p-value. Interestingly, that colorful, mischievous and imaginative types of leadership positively predict psychological well-being of subordinations. That can be explained by some characteristics and features of these types of leadership, which are not purely “dark” and have a negative impact on employees. Despite a positive direction, their relationships have low beta (β0.43)
Hogan traits were inputted in the second regression analysis as predictors of work-family conflict. Here we tested to which extend dark personality of project leaders can impact employees’ work-family relationships. Based on the table below, 45% of the variance in the dependent variable is accounted for. R^2 is equal to 0.2 while Adjusted R^2 is 0.128. According to the results of F-test, significance meets the requirement to be accepted, as p-value is much lower than 0.05.
Table 4: Model Summary
Table 5: ANOVA Work-Family Conflict
Table 6: Coefficients
The table shows that 4 of 11 dark traits of personality have a negative effect on work-family relationships (cautious, reserved, bold and diligent). However, among them the only relationship between bold and work-family conflict is significant. Negative beta β=(-0.59) and p-value=0.001 shows the higher degree of a bold trait in the personality of the manager the less work-family conflict subordinates can experience. As for positive relationships between dark traits and the dependent variable of the second regression, dutiful has a positive impact on work-family conflict. That means that if project leader is dutiful, it can lead to a work-family conflict of employees. P-value of 0.04 indicates that the influence is significant. Skeptical, excitable and colorful in their turn have positive relationships with work and family conflict. However, beta coefficients are quite low, indicating a weak connection between variables. Nonetheless, p-value>0.05.
The final step of the analysis is to investigate the effect of psychological well-being and work-family conflict on project success. R-value shows that 40% of the variance in project success is accounted for. R2 equaled to 0.16 is slightly higher than adjusted R2 (0.15). According to F-test for project success, level of significance is less than 0.001.
Table 7: Model Summary
Table 8: ANOVA Project Success
The regression model for testing project success showed that psychological well-being has a positive impact on project success. High beta value and low p-value (β=0.41. p-value<0.001) means that psychological well-being of employees is the key factor in project success. The hypothesis is stating that there is a positive influence on psychological well-being of subordinates on project success is confirmed. When it comes to work-family conflict. The sign of the relationship is in line with the theoretical assumption. however p-value>0.05.
Table 9: Coefficients
6.1 Findings of the Study
The objective of this study was to test the manifest-level relations between employee ratings of their supervisors on a measure of corporate psychopathy and measures of their psychological well-being, work-family conflict, and job satisfaction. In each sample, there was a significant positive relationship between employees’ ratings of psychopathy traits in their supervisors and employee’s self-reported psychological well-being and project success. However, the pattern of associations between the employee ratings of their supervisors on corporate psychopathy traits and work-family conflict differed somewhat in the two samples, which could be due to differences in sample characteristics.
Psychological Well-being Negatively Predicts Business/Project Failure.
The findings of our study show that psychological well-being has an impact on project success and failure. In other words, there is a significant positive relationship between psychological well being and project success. The findings of our study are consistent with the findings of many studies including (Atonakis et al., 2012).
Work-family Conflict Positively Affects Business/Project Failure. The study has proposed that work-family conflict positively affect business/project failure. The findings of the study show that there is a relationship between work-family conflict and project success in a way that the conflict leads to failure, but still, the relationship is not significant, so the hypothesis is not accepted. The findings of the study are inconsistent with the findings of many studies including (Bruck et al., 2002); (Krasikova, Green, & LeBreton, 2013).
Dark Leadership and Subordinates’ Psychological Well-being
As previously noted, some dark side personality attributes are more toxic than others for critical leader behaviors. For example, tendencies to move away from others when stressed (i.e., Excitable, Skeptical, Cautious, Reserved, Leisurely) are consistently toxic to both overall managerial performance ratings and ratings of critical leader behaviors. Tendencies associated with manipulating others or building alliances in response to stress, however, show mixed results.
Leisurely Has a Positive Impact on Psychological Well-being
The study has proposed that leisure has a positive influence on psychological well-being. The findings of the study show that leisurely has a significant positive influence on psychological well-being. A leisurely scale is often used regarding people who are considered to be cooperative and very friendly by their nature. The results of the study can be explained by the ability of leisurely people to listen to the opinions of other people and show respect to the view of other people.
Dutiful also Has A Positive Impact on Psychological Well-being
By their nature, dutiful people are known to please others. Although they have some challenges regarding making final decisions, they always focus on advice and counseling of the people surrounding them. Dutiful people have a strong work commitment. Thus, this type of people is not able to pay enough attention to their family roles as they are obsessed with their work duties. To achieve the expected results, dutiful leader provides all necessary motivation for their subordinates. Therefore, it can be mentioned that dutiful has a positive influence on psychological well being of the employees. The findings of the study are line with some studies including (Padilla, Hogan, & Kaiser, 2007).
Excitable Has A Negative Impact on the Psychological Well-being of the Employee
The study has proposed that excitable has a negative impact on the psychological well being of the employee. The findings of the study show that there is a significant positive influence of excitable on the psychological well-being of the employees. Thus, the hypothesis was accepted. The nature of the excitable scale shows that these type of people show a high level of passion and respect towards the work that they accomplish. The high level of commitment to conducting all work duties on time leads leaders to influence negatively on the psychological well being of the employees since they will be given extra work and pressure.
Dark Leadership and Work-family Conflict
It seems that the effects of dark leadership are even wider, touching the personal life of employees. Though to a lesser extent than leader-related, job-related, and organizational effects, we found that dark leadership is also closely related to negative affectivity and the experience of occupational stress (and negatively to personal well-being, respectively). Of course, we cannot rule out that the relationship is in the opposite direction, so that, for example, stress leads to a higher perception of dark leadership. However, Ferris, Zinko, Brouer, Buckley, and Harvey (2007) argue that strategic bullying leads to control loss in followers and thereby increases stress. Ultimately, the consequence of these relationships could be societal costs if employees become unable to work for a prolonged period.
Bold Has A Negative Impact on the Conflict (meaning that if the leader is bold, there will be less conflict)
Literature defines the dark leadership being associated with abusive leadership. The research conducted by Alison (2010) defined abusive leadership as a repeated behavior that is undertaken by the leaders which result in the negative influence towards whole organization and individuals involved in it. In this regard, it can be mentioned that dark leadership can feature both constructive and destructive behavior, mentioning that destructive leaders cab be effective in some circumstances.
Dutiful Has A Positive Impact (meaning if a leader is dutiful there will be some conflict)
The study has proposed that dutiful has a positive influence on work-family conflict. The findings of the study show that dutiful has a positive influence. Precisely, if the leader Is dutiful, there will be some work-family conflict. Dutiful people are often indecisive, and it is difficult to predict their behavior. Therefore, it creates an extra burden for the employees to keep with work and family balance. The findings of the study are in line with some studies including (Einarsen et al., 2007; Brookmire, 2007; Owens, 2016).
6.2 Recommendations and Implications
The findings of the study have several implications for both academics and business people. Understanding the traits of dark leadership and its direct influence on the psychological well being of the employees is considered to be important to establish a strong organizational culture. Moreover, understanding the dark traits of leadership is essential to understanding the certain benefits and drawbacks which they might have on the psychological well being of the employees. Besides, this study sheds important light on the influence of dark traits of leadership on business and project success and failure. Understanding the main motivators of dark traits of leadership is important in preventing the cases of business failure while understanding the positive traits of dark leadership plays important role in ensuring the success of the business project.
The importance of the leadership is quite high because it is challenging to work without knowing the purpose of the work. It is undoubtedly true that companies can achieve considerable results when they know what they want; here the role of a leader is to find this goal and inspire others to achieve it. Observing the role of leaders in the world of animals, it is the fact that majority of species have the leader of the flock, group. In human-beings’ world, it is almost the same; all the countries have their leaders in the face of presidents, prime-ministers who are giving the picture of a country’s future for its citizens. When it comes to companies, leaders are the main and key figures there as well.
To lead the company as a company manager, the person should have certain abilities, which can be developed and learned. First of all, the manager should have knowledge and experience in the field in which the company operates. It is almost impossible to manage the company by being “blind” and without knowing the situation on the market, competitors, and demands of customers. Hence, the theoretical and practical basis can form the person as a good leader.
To lead the company as a business manager, the person should have certain abilities, which can be developed and learned. First of all, the manager should have knowledge and experience in the field in which the company operates. It is almost impossible to manage the business by being “blind” and without knowing the situation on the market, competitors, and demands of customers. Hence, the theoretical and practical basis can form the person as a good leader. In this respective, this study provides some insights what entrepreneur traits should pay be attention to improve business performance. This study provides practical implications for business managers and executives. Some of the identified personality traits should be accurately controlled to prevent their negative impact on employee well-being. On the other hand, the extent of these characteristics and their relative importance will be identified within the study which gives an overall picture of personality traits to business managers. The findings of the planned future study will provide some useful insights to top executives to increase employee well-being and improve work atmosphere will directly influence their business success. The future research can also include analyses of important demographic characteristics such as comparison of males and female manager’s dark personality.
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