International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration
Volume 4, Issue 2, January 2018, Pages 67-83
Introduction of the Labor Competencies Approach in Educational Institutions of Ecuador
1 Alexander Sánchez-Rodríguez, 2 Rodobaldo Martínez-Vivar, 3 Clara Marrero-Fornaris, 4 Reyner Pérez-Campdesuñer, 5 Gelmar García-Vidal
1 2 4 5 Faculty of Administrative Science, Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial, Ecuador
3 Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Universidad de Holguín, Cuba
Abstract: The objective of this research is to design a model of continuous improvement for the management of human talent, with a focus on labor competencies, linking their core processes and contribute to raising the performance of teachers, improve the perception of students and their social environment and other global results in educational institutions in Ecuador, by the need to strengthen their development within the territory. A cluster analysis using Ward’s method, through the Euclidean distance squared, according to the characteristics of the scale used to evaluate the variables of the models is developed. Validation resulting cluster analysis was performed by comparing the results obtained in the processing of the same sample by the nonhierarchical method, obtaining the corresponding dendrogram. As part of the analysis of the potential variables involved in the multivariate construct competencies management, a procedure for analyzing variables consensus on participants in a theoretical model was used. The contributions are reflected in the theoretical model designed from the four latent variables identified for managing human talent based on labor competencies, generic competencies profile for teachers, diagnostic results on the current situation of the introduction of the approach, and instruments for calculating indicators, which reflect an improvement in the teacher’s perspective, highlighting the level of competencies and the level of competencies development, with a favorable impact on the global results of this institution. It has an added value that focuses on the proposed theoretical model itself, distinguished by the integration of the mainstream in the study of competencies and the design of a management system of human talent based on this approach, making use of systems approach, holistic and strategic direction; providing technically sound tools for competencies development.
Keywords: Labor competencies, Educational institutions, Human talent management, Teacher training, Ecuador
It has been shown that the basis of any strong organization is a set of subjective factors that sustain it, giving the chance of success, where the role of the human factor is highlighted. New trends have focused their attention on the human being, the creator of wealth, from their knowledge and efforts; necessitating their creativity and commitment to the organization in which it operates. “These resources are consolidated as an element of competitive advantage of contemporaneity” (De Miguel Guzmán, 2001, p. 12), so it is necessary to appeal to factors related to man as a means of achieving organizational management, giving special importance to factors such as skills, values, knowledge, talent, culture, as an important means for management.
Knowledge of an organization is an element of competitive advantage, especially when the final customer can perceive differences on the basis of knowledge of their provider. This fact increases in educational institutions that influence decisively in the social, economic, cultural and technological change that is occurring in Ecuadorian society. In this order, the management system must evolve from traditional patterns towards more modern management systems, however its implementation involves profound changes, both in thought and action and therefore the technologies to be used (Marrero Fornaris, 2002), which must integrate the new trends regarding the management of human talent (HTM) as the competencies approach and allow the necessary changes to meet the demands of companies and their environment).
It has been shown in practice (Marrero Fornaris, 2002, Zayas Agüero, 2002) that the approach of functions and tasks absolutizes these job profiles; they are not in most cases in line with the strategy of the Ministry of Education, on the other hand, it is very general specifications which then cannot be effectively used by those responsible for carrying out activities related to the HTM. Replacing these job descriptions to competencies profiles whose main contributions arise: the alignment of the human contribution to the strategic needs of the education district; the design of job positions starting from the competencies that are required so that the processes reach the maximum performance, the evaluation of the employees and the fair compensation based on the individual contribution. The need is to translate this new approach into sufficiently and scientifically sound, integrated methods to achieve its implementation in organizations.
There are several approaches of competencies management (Armstrong-Stassen, 2009; Cuesta Santos, 2010; Guerrero Dávalos, Valverde Aparicio, & Gorjup, 2013; Guerrero Dávalos & Jiménez López, 2014; Gallego, 2012; Jiménez Jiménez, 2011; Kim & Oh , 2011; Nagla, 2011; Pocovi, 2009) each follow a different stream for study without the necessary integration from its most positive aspects, whether a functionalist, behaviorist or constructivist approach, showing the disadvantages of their individual application.
During the years in which the integration of the competencies approach with the HTM system in the education sector has been applied, an incipient level of development has already been observed, especially in the process of determining the competencies, and have carried out applications to three activities basic: personnel selection, training and performance evaluation, independently, without integration among themselves and with the other activities that make processes HTM (Alonso, Moscoso, & Cuadrado, 2015; Ávila Carreon, González Santoyo, & Flores Romero, 2012; Urdanegui Sibina, 2014; Díaz Cabrera et al, 2014. Rockwell, 2015).
What is discussed so far based the initiation of this investigation, which is manifested in the insufficient systemic nature of the competencies approach in educational institutions in the district El Carmen, which limits its relationship to the processes of human talent management and affects perception of students and their social environment and the other global results of the organization.
It has been considered the population of the workers of the district administrative unit functions relating to the HTM and managers of educational institutions in the district D-05 El Carmen, amounting to 170 employees. It was considered as a sample of the entire universe of study.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Human Talent Management Approach Based on Labor Competencies
It could raise the initial hypothesis (Jiménez Jiménez, 2011) that competencies management can become the concept integrating and implementing all new, and some not so new concepts of management, organization, and management of human talent in the workplace. The most current definitions coincide in considering the HTM as a planned process (Marrero Fornaris 2002), based on real needs, which is aimed at the development of competencies at all levels to improve the results of individuals, the organization, and society in general.
In the literature can be found a great number of authors through different approaches raise their own models to manage human talent in organizations (eg. Beer et al., 1989; Puchol Moreno, 2014; Chiavenato, 2009, Morales Cartaya, 2006). In all of them, common ground can be found regarding the place of competencies profile in the model of HTM, the alignment of competencies with the business strategy, the nature of the competencies according to the areas included, the evaluation of the results, the integrality of the system, the HTM processes and activities to which the approach applies and the factors involved in the system, among others. Arguments of each of which were analyzed and extracted their main contributions and limitations.
For the development of the analysis of human talent management approaches by competencies consulted, based on the identified currents of thought, a matrix of data is constructed for comparison, depending on the 48 established variables, as a consequence of the study developed on the concepts of competencies, related to four essential latent variables: the labor competencies approach, the strategic approach to HTM, the systemic and process nature, and the open and interactive system. In this way, the information was processed and a Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. Ward method was used in the cluster analysis developed in this research through the Euclidean distance squared, according to the characteristics of the scale used to assess the study of variables. Validation of resulting cluster analysis was performed by comparing the results obtained in the processing of the same sample by the nonhierarchical method.
The resulting dendrogram of the analysis (Figure 1), with a cut on level 10, shows the presence of four major groups: The first, composed of authors such as: Harper & Lynch (1992), Rul-lán Buades (1997), Barranco (1993), Dessler (2009) and French (1995), which emphasize in their contributions a more traditional approach of HTM, showing a reductionist character with an image of fragmentation in competencies, taking a pragmatic and behaviorist position. The identified competencies are only a complement to the traditional job profile diagram, which affects implement approach only partially to some isolated process as training or performance evaluation, without achieving enough depth on how to act, while the depth of treated variables varies between them and limit their contributions to the organizational level.
In the second group are: Kim & Oh (2011), Mertens (1997), Gallardo Milanés (2003), Jolis (1998), Levy-Leboyer (1997), Boyatzis (1982), Del Pino Martínez (1997), Armstrong -Stassen (2009), Bartol Casas (1992), Bustillo (1994), Urdanegui Sibina (2014), Werther & Davis (2008), Puchol Moreno (2014), Chiavenato (2011), Matías Reche & García Morales (2002), Beer et al. (1989), and Besseyre des Horts (1990). Their proposals are based on considering the worker as a fundamental subject, integrating human qualities in the competencies profile, whose determination proper alignment occurs with the business strategy, which allows interrelating the activities of HTM from the policies. Although it is only possible to apply the approach to three essential processes: training and development, selection of personnel and performance evaluation, limiting the systemic character of the HTM based on competencies.
The third group focuses on the research conducted by the authors: Jiménez Jiménez (2011), Fuentes Rodríguez (2002), Ávila Carreon et al. (2012), Gallego (2012), Pocovi (2009), García Morales et al. (2002), García-Saiz (2011), Guerrero Dávalos et al. (2013), Guerrero Dávalos & Jiménez López (2014), Rockwell (2015), Monchatre (2009), and Aragón Sánchez (2015). These deepen in the approach of the introduction of competences, considering the profile as an input and the backbone of the system. They conceive the competencies as a result, cognitive, emotional, physical and social structured spheres so that the profiles are structured attitudes, knowledge, and skills that complement the information registry of the work profile diagram. They also propose the strategic management of human talent with an emphasis on organizational learning and skills development, which is part of the strategy to promote the development of competencies and improve HTM processes. Therefore they define the permanent development of worker competencies as a result of the system, although the scope of the approach is also limited to the three central processes of the previous group. Finally, they analyze the impact of various factors, such as the labor market, the strategy of the organization and the clients and stakeholders in the determination of labor competencies and the indicators that measure their behavior and impact on the organization.
The fourth group includes authors: Cuesta Santos (2010), Martínez Vivar (2013), Díaz Cabrera et al. (2014), Zayas Agüero (2002), Sánchez Rodríguez (2013), Olaz Capitán (2009), Alonso et al. (2015), Morales Cartaya (2006), MTSS (2001), De Miguel Guzmán (2001), Marrero Fornaris (2002), and Sotolongo Sánchez (2005). These authors present proposals closer to the integration of processes and activities of HTM, which revolve around the profile of labor competencies, conceived with a holistic character, as a result of the combination of behaviors, roles, and learning processes. Under those conditions is achieved a broader application of the approach to other processes, in addition to the three traditionally covered, such as compensation and health and safety at work. In addition, the activities of HTM are integrated into three groups of processes: organization and planning, selection and development and social and motivational. The formation of values and competencies as communication processes are assumed, analyzing the impact of situational factors such as legal and political regulations, the development of science and technology, the work environment and the organizational strategy and stakeholders in the development of the competences of the workers.
In the group of authors consulted analyzing and proposing HTM models with a competencies approach, a series of deficiencies are corroborated, the most significant are: The competencies approach is not conceived with a systemic character since it is not specified it establishes the relationship of the competencies profile with all of the HTM processes, which also implies that this approach is applied generally to the selection process, evaluation, and training. The strategic nature is not reflected in all the authors studied, leading to an alignment of competencies not secure with business strategy and that all levels of the organization are not taken into account. Also, the competencies approach with a holistic dialectical character is not addressed to analyze the process of integrated development of worker competencies, resulting in ineffective training programs.
Figure 1: Results of Dendrogram using Ward Linkage
It can be stated that all activities of HTM could be made based on the competencies approach, despite applications made have been directed more frequently toward training and recruitment, demonstrating that without the extension of the approach to all activities or processes is not possible to achieve the necessary integration to obtain the expected results in terms of increased labor productivity and competitiveness of the organization. Already it has been introduced the competencies approach within these models of human talent, as it could be seen, but still has not designed a conceptual model to perform competencies management in business, to clarify how to carry it pathways fact.
2.2 Current Status of the Competencies Approach in Educational Institutions in Ecuador
One of the greatest needs of the Ecuadorian educational system focuses on proper training for teachers, to help them manage vital axes in real reform; Such is the case of competencies. In a first approach, and from the perspective of educational, competencies training is a process aimed specifically at students. However, to train competent people, it is necessary that educational institutions implement teaching and learning processes at work founded by competencies, which are primarily responsible teachers and education authorities.
In a second approach, and from a wide and complex perspective, competencies training is not the sole responsibility of educational institutions, but also of society (to promote a culture of appropriate human talent); companies (by integrating labor competencies with the educational and social system); family (to train people incompetencies of thought and social); the individual himself (assuming his training as a project of self-management for all his life resonances).
In this sense, we must understand that the powers do not determine by themselves the individual, but are formed, developed, acquired or constructed as part of an internal process in each individual. It is understood that each person advances on a steady path of awareness of self and self-realization. In addition, it is assumed that the training is based on experience and continuous learning; therefore it focuses on the performance or suitable performance, and understand the performance as an integral whole (cognitive, attitudinal and procedural).
Teachers know the limitations of the education system, especially in two respects: the primacy of traditional education given to content, to the detriment of procedural and attitudinal parties; and the breakdown of traditional education with real life, with everyday situations and, ultimately, with work and other human performance.
In this sense, teachers and Ecuadorian teachers are enthusiastically this approaches because they perceive that facilitate the formation of autonomous, creative, free, responsible and efficient individuals. Perhaps the only obstacle in relation to the skills approach is that teachers a dual curriculum face, as they plan and develop their classes with methodologies and own skills teaching, but in parallel must comply with micro curricular planning legally established by the Consensus Curricular Reform. In this sense, it is urgent that the Ecuadorian Government review the institutional and legal framework of education.
The problem of educational institutions of Ecuador is that they do not have an HTM model based on labor competencies; what exists now is the manual functions, the description, evaluation and job classification, which has an emphasis on factors such as skills, complexity and responsibility that has to have the human talent in each of their jobs assigned, but the result of poor supervision and control of human talent this is not applied throughout Ecuador; It is where districts with their relevant institutions should apply their own HTM model focusing on labor competencies.
3. Method and Result
3.1 Participants Consensus Analysis of Variables in the Theoretical Model for the Human Talent Management Focusing Labor Competencies
As part of the analysis of the potential variables involved in the multivariate construct competencies management, procedural logic posed in Figure 2. This is explained below.
Figure 2: Procedure for consensus analysis of variables involved in a theoretical model.
3.1.1 Exploring the Variables that Affect the Management of Labor Competencies
To identify the variables that potentially affect the management of competencies, a panel of experts, which was structured with managers, specialists and academics familiar with the issue settled; wherein 100% of cases they have the higher level of education and vast experience in their profession. Academics are teachers-consultants in the field and have the scientific status of PhD, have both national and international. 15 experts were selected, all with a coefficient greater than 0.7 competence. To get their opinions out a questionnaire, which included the variables identified from the theoretical order discussed above, in which it was found that there is a strong correlation between the opinions issued by the experts was designed. Through a pilot test, the internal consistency and reliability of the scales were verified through Cronbach Alpha coefficient which yielded greater than 0.7 is considered as acceptable for the purposes of the study (Martínez Vivar et al., 2016).
Of the total proposed variables they were selected 19 which were reported by 80% or more of respondents experts, highlighting shortcomings not observed from the theoretical approaches discussed, as are: the formation of values and communication processes, assessment system in terms of job satisfaction and use of job profile diagram record cards; which likewise they were eliminated after analysis.
3.1.2 Confirmation and Validity of Variables that Influence the Management of Labor Competencies
As a result of the above analysis, the ordering of agreement is required with the degree of importance that each expert attributed to variables in the analysis, as shown in Table 1, for this purpose a total of 400 experts surveyed, processed a total of 354 surveys valid discarding 1% of the total applied. Concluding data arrays for processing using SPSS for Windows (version 21), according to the module for principal component analysis.
Table 1: Results of the application of the questionnaire to the experts to identify the variables that influence the HTM focusing on competencies.
|No.||Variables||% of experts who recognize the factor|
|1.||Profile of competencies as the core of the system||95|
|2.||The determination of competencies as a result of the combination of behaviors, roles, and learning processes||90|
|3.||Holistic nature of labor competencies||95|
|4.||Profile composed of competence aspects and components of knowledge, capacity, abilities, and skills, attitudes and behaviors||100|
|5.||Strategic management of HT with emphasis on organizational learning and development of competencies||90|
|6.||It is part of the strategy to promote skills development and improve HTM processes||95|
|7.||Employees considered as a fundamental subject||100|
|8.||Values education as communication processes||31|
|9.||Aligning business strategy in determining labor competencies||90|
|10.||Integrated system with the interrelationship of all processes and HTM activities, revolving around competencies profile||85|
|11.||The competencies approach applies to all HTM processes||90|
|12.||HTM activities are integrated into three groups of processes: organizational and planning, selection and development and the social and motivational||90|
|13.||Holistic, synergistic and relational system||95|
|14.||Continued development of competencies of the employee as a result of the system||95|
|15.||The results are evaluated from the perspective of employees, customers and stakeholders and the organization in general||85|
|16.||Using profesiographic records cards||32|
|17.||The system is evaluated in terms of job satisfaction||20|
|18.||HTM interaction system with internal factors and external environment||90|
|19.||HTM interaction with customers and stakeholders||95|
Consistent with the results are shown in Table 2 and Table 3 factorial validity and reliability analysis considered that the technique used was valid to explain the behavior of the variables included in the study. In the first four components can explain the 76.85% of the total variance, highly positive. The first axis explains 22.37%, then the second axis 43.53%, and the third axis 61.23% and 76.85% on the fourth of the total variance. These results confirm that the structuring of the axes on the variables considered is able to explain the phenomenon in a high degree.
Table 2: Results of reliability and validity for the study of variables.
|Reliability analysis: Cronbach Alpha coefficient: 0,893|
|Validity analysis: Meyer- Olkin Kaiser coefficient: 0,885|
Sphericity test Barttett: 15.504,807
|Study of variables|
|Axis I||Axis II||Axis III||Axis IV|
|Contribution to the total variance||22.37%||21.16%||16.69%||15.62%|
|Cumulative percentage of variance explained||22.37%||43.53%||61.23%||76.85%|
Factor analysis developed illustrates the differential grouping of each latent variable, excelling in the first component variables related to the labor competencies approach, leading to the contextualization of competencies profiles as the core management system, linked to the functions, behavior and learning processes, showing the holistic nature of this process by linking the components of knowledge, capacity, abilities and skills, attitudes and behaviors.
Table 3: Results of the correspondence factor analysis for the HTM by competencies.
|Correlation between variables and axes|
|a) Profile of competencies as the core of the system||.051||-.008||-.028||.742|
|b) The determination of competencies as a result of the combination of behaviors. roles and learning processes||-.003||-.011||-.027||.647|
|c) Holistic nature of labor competencies||-.053||-.037||-.050||.944|
|d) Profile composed of competence aspects and components of knowledge, capacity, abilities and skills, attitudes and behaviors||-.070||-.040||-.056||.957|
|e) Strategic management of HT with emphasis on organizational learning and development of competencies||.031||.104||.983||-.051|
|f) It is part of the strategy to promote skills development and improve HTM processes||.032||.098||.979||-.054|
|g) Employees considered as a fundamental subject||.034||.097||.987||-.054|
|h) Aligning business strategy in determining labor competencies||.024||.100||.987||-.059|
|i) Integrated system with the interrelationship of all processes and HTM activities, revolving around competencies profile||.618||-.022||.026||-.007|
|j) The competencies approach applies to all HTM processes||.449||.095||.031||-.036|
|k) HTM activities are integrated into three groups of processes: organizational and planning, selection and development and the social and motivational||.892||.050||.072||.007|
|l) Holistic, synergistic and relational system||.875||.054||.076||.012|
|m) Continued development of competencies of the employee as a result of the system||.918||.045||.032||-.016|
|n) The results are evaluated from the perspective of employees, customers and stakeholders and the organization in general||.955||.013||.024||-.017|
|o) HTM interaction system with internal factors and external environment||.039||.975||.085||-.034|
|p) HTM interaction with customers and stakeholders||.021||.718||.056||-.070|
The second component includes the variables that affect the strategic dimension, grouping in variables associated with strategic business management and the learning process, splitting from this edge for the development of training plans, considering workers as the main subject of the organization, linking all holistically system processes human talent management to competencies in particular and its alignment with the business strategy in general.
The third component brings the character of system and process, marking the interrelationship of all processes and HTM activities, revolving around competencies profile, where the competencies approach applies to all HTM processes, the integrated three groups processes: organizational and planning, selection and development and the social and motivational, which contributes to the development of a holistic, synergistic and relational system able to ensure ongoing competencies development of the employee as a result of the system, which evaluated from the perspective of employees, customers and stakeholders and the organization in general.
The fourth component groups the variables related to the size of the open and interactive system, where the HTM system interaction is displayed with factors internal and external environment while facilitating the same with customers and stakeholders.
To check if the components and selected variables described to construct a reliable character that conforms the HTM focusing on competencies, it was calculated the Cronbach Alpha coefficient for each latent variable and variable in particular; for all of them took greater than 0.80 meritorious reliability coefficients values. Then it was proceeded to remove the items in succession to see if improved reliability, and noted that in any case the increase experienced by the Alpha Cronbach justifies the elimination of the variable or latent variable; so it is concluded that the HTM focusing on competencies is influenced by the 16 essential variables extracted from factor analysis. Grouping the variables in the four latent variables considered sufficient also presents coefficients (0.936, 0.995, 0.947 and 0.958 respectively).
Table 4: Dimensions and essential variables of HTM by competencies.
|Latent variable||Essential variables|
|I||Labor Competencies||Profile of competencies as the core of the system.|
The determination of competencies as a result of the combination of behaviors, roles, and learning processes.
|Holistic nature of labor competencies.|
Profile composed of competence aspects and components of knowledge, capacity, abilities, and skills, attitudes and behaviors.
|Strategic management of HT with emphasis on organizational learning and development of competencies.|
Aligning business strategy in determining labor competencies.
|Employees considered as a fundamental subject.|
It is part of the strategy to promote skills development and improve HTM processes.
|III||System and Process||Integrated system with the interrelationship of all processes and HTM activities, revolving around competencies profile.|
The results are evaluated from the perspective of employees, customers and stakeholders and the organization in general.
|Holistic, synergistic and relational system.|
HTM activities are integrated into three groups of processes: organizational and planning, selection and development and the social and motivational.
Continued development of competencies of the employee as a result of the system.
|IV||HTM interaction system with internal factors and external environment.||HTM interaction with customers and stakeholders.|
Based on the analyzes it can be concluded that:
• The HTM focusing on competencies is a complex construct in interacting sets of variables that are grouped into four essential latent variables that manifest from its interaction action on the HTM, highlighting the focus of labor competencies, strategic, approach systems and processes and the character is the open and interactive system.
• The instruments used in the principal component analysis, show an acceptable level of validity and reliability, enabling the statistical description of the multidimensional construct that explains the development process of HTM focusing on competencies in organizations. It contributes to the development of the conceptual model that presents this research, from having respective statistical identification and assessment of the key variables that affect each latent variable as explained in Table 4.
3.1.3 Continuous Improvement Model to HTM Focusing on Competencies
Starting from the analysis of variables previously made the proposal of a model of continuous improvement to the HTM is presented with a focus on labor competencies that will serve for educational institutions in the District to improve their results and also the territory in general get better results unlike other existing districts belonging to the zone; This proposal includes a theoretical model and a general procedure where currents of thought are linked to the competencies approach, represented in the variables grouped the four latent variables identified.
They were also used, corresponding to the latent variables themselves, as conceptual bases, the systems approach to interpreting the HTM and the organization as a set of closely interrelated processes; strategic management approach that combines management by objectives and strategic planning; and theories on the labor competencies development. Methods and tools necessary for each of the phases and stages of the implementation process will also confirm. This contributes to the objectives, strategies and action plans defined for continuous improvement in the management of competencies development are correlated with mission, objectives, strategies, and actions of the organization and part of the process of deriving them all structural subdivisions.
For the conception of the theoretical model, it was decided to use expert judgment, by using the Delphi method processing. For this it was pre selected 30 potential specialists, taking into account the knowledge and experience. Of 22 respondents, of which 17 were selected, with an average competition ratio of 0.83.
The factors that suit the conditions listed educational institutions studied by experts, in addition to the variables grouped in Table 3 and the model proposed by Sánchez Rodríguez (2013) were taken into account. The experts gave their opinions and suggestions, thus leading to the development of a model agreed by all to the HTM with competencies approach, as shown in Figure 3.
The theoretical model was conceived as a permanent system showing the spiral development of competencies of teachers, whose interpretation as a social process of conscious character involves recognizing its complex and dialectical nature. This requires to carry out its analysis as a process, which is energized by the interrelationships and influences of the central elements that characterize the model with internal factors, such as corporate strategy, infrastructure, resources and working environment, and external factors such as the development of science and technology, family and social environment, the labor market and the legal and political regulations. As the presence of systemic approach manifests.
The competencies approach as a central conceptual base, essential for all the elements of the continuous improvement model is adopted. Which emphasizes the fact that any decision regarding the management of people is made on the basis of the information they provide, as output, the competencies. It is a process that promotes the development of teaching, which enables responsible and creative participation in their working environment, and its continued growth as a human being. It is a holistic and multidimensional process, which processes interrelate different directions, with the intervention of factors specific to the individuals involved (teachers – students and their social environment – institution).
Figure 3: Continuous improvement model to HTM focusing on competencies (Modified from Sánchez Rodríguez, 2013).
The proposed theoretical model is geared towards improving the results relating to students, their social environment and the organization as a final goal, on the basis of a given change by the continued development of the necessary competencies to the success of the entire system where it is obtained that:
• Teachers: to increase their competence levels and develop since joining the institution, it increases their versatility, and therefore improve the quality of their teaching and knowledge that will serve them well for the future when following in their profession;
• The student and their social environment: perceive the competencies developed by teachers, and meet their needs and expectations being satisfied with the education and knowledge they acquire;
• The institution eventually experiences a cultural change in learning, increase the responsiveness to new demands of the environment, and ensure the support of its competitive advantages. It increases the efficiency and effectiveness of the institution, from the impact of the development of labor competencies.
The process of labor competencies development, demonstrating its systemic nature, interacts with the external environment, within which highlights four key factors for its close link:
• The labor market, consisting of all educational institutions that offer services or products to meet the same needs, and therefore require similar competencies, and people (potential internal clients) seeking work and have the competencies required by the institution;
• Legal and political regulations, which must meet both the organization and external customers, and that involve constant training in new competencies;
• The development of science and technology, which requires the acquisition and development of competencies required to undertake this accelerated progress in this area;
• And family and social environment, raison d’etre of the institution.
Also, it interacts with the internal environment, being closely related to:
• Institutional strategy, an essential element marking the scope of services offered by the organization, and therefore, areas of competencies to train and develop;
• The working environment, which directly affects the levels of commitment, and must be managed to achieve the expected performance levels;
• Resources and infrastructure that will demand and determine the development and acquisition of certain competencies, and also allow workers to maintain high levels of motivation for successful performance of their work, committed to the results of the organization.
The systemic nature is also demonstrated through the relationships established between the different structures present, such as management system designed human talent itself. It consists of three interrelated processes: planning and organization of human talent, competencies development, and management of the working environment. As shown in Figure 3, the profile of competence, as entry element characterized by three distinctive aspects of the current study: behavior, function and the learning process is the fundamental input that directs the HTM, and investment assets of competencies in realization processes of the institution itself.
In management, exchange of information that allows occurs each process to obtain management competencies as an input, and profile information for maintenance and updating to; showing a direct relation to the perception of students and indirectly with the other processes of the institution. After interaction with the social environment is obtained as an output, teachers with higher competence levels, students and social environment with higher levels of satisfaction and, consequently, higher levels of results for the institution.
When analyzing the presence of systemic approach in the model, the performance of several categories and principles as all checks, by which any action on the competencies profile, the processes of human talent or key processes of the organization, will affect all other parts, due to the relationship between them; without reducing it to its constituent parts, but by successive synthesis expressing their traits, qualities and relationships.
The dialectical character takes place in the ordered series of results obtained from the development of competencies which become a succession and sequence of these facts in each level of the spiral. From this theoretical model, a general procedure that allows the implementation of a permanent program for development of labor competencies, based on the business strategy and its alignment with competencies is designed.
To implement this theoretical model proposed a general procedure, from the design of its components subsystems, on the basis of the information they provide competencies profiles and their alignment with business strategy. The overall process consists of the following activities:
1. Starting the process.
2. Internal factors favor the implementation of the competencies approach in the organization? If the answer is positive we move to Phase 1, if negative should take the necessary measures to fulfill these premises and return to Home.
3. Phase 1. Initial preparation.
4. Phase 2. Identification and validation of competencies.
5. Phase 3. Design of human talent management system focusing on competencies.
6. Phase 4. Training and certification of competencies.
7. Phase 5. Evaluation and monitoring of results.
8. Have there been changes in internal factors and (or) external or new labor competencies required for positions? If the answer is positive return early in the process if a negative return to Phase 4.
The procedure starts with a question, you must check whether the entity complies with certain premises to begin the process of implementing technology and competencies management approach. This means knowing whether internal factors raised in the theoretical model, promote the implementation of the approach and the process of development of labor competencies and continuous improvement in the HTM.
The premises for implementation are:
a) The existence of a satisfactory working environment.
b) Interest, commitment, and willingness of senior management to conceive human talent management as a key strategic variable to achieve the expected results in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and competitiveness and to implement the competencies approach. To analyze this premise interviews will be conducted to managers, inquiring about these issues, and business strategy will be reviewed. The implementation of other management systems and continuous improvement and quality management, are favorable to consider within this premise elements.
c) The existence of the necessary resources. The organization must demonstrate that: has the material and financial resources needed to implement and maintain the competencies management system, and improve efficiency and ensure job satisfaction of employees; it has the necessary human talent and the competence required to directly address the processes and activities related to management competencies.
d) The existing infrastructure in the institution favors the development of labor competencies in terms of the need to run the training and promote self-development, from the effective use of computing tools and search for updated information technology; the remaining elements of the infrastructure favor the levels of job motivation and commitment.
The latter two premises are checked through direct observation and interviews with managers, teachers, and administrators, in addition to document review. Failure to comply with any of them involves taking corrective actions, as they are prerequisites to move to the first phase. Determination of professional competencies: Here an important contribution, which is developing a basic profile of competencies for teachers of educational institutions, which account for 75% of the total workforce is made.
From the information gathered on the job positions, and to facilitate the process in the institutions where the methodology is applied, it is proposed to develop this basic profile, where all possible powers within this element required to perform include each the roles of teachers in the district institutions, based on experiences in countries like Spain, Mexico and Chile (Alonso, Moscoso, & Cuadrado, 2015;. Díaz Cabrera et al., 2014; Aragón Sánchez, 2015; Guerrero Dávalos et al., 2013; Guerrero Dávalos & Jiménez López, 2014). In addition, competencies aspects and its components will be included: knowledge, capacities, abilities, skills, values, attitudes and behaviors. To this end, we continue with the application of expert judgment, using the same team of selected specialists for the development of the theoretical model. Thus it is passed to the fifth round of questions.
The fifth round was led to ask experts that listed all the competencies required for excellent job performance. For what was considered the range of functions identified for teachers of the institutions studied, whose information was duly provided. The question was answered by 17 specialists. After removing the discordant competencies, we made another table that was sent to the experts, who now had to confirm the competence of teachers in educational institutions. Table 5 shows the competencies of teachers of educational institutions and their resulting competencies aspects listed.
Table 5: Competencies and competence aspects identified for teachers.
|A. Scientific Competence||– Knowledge in the area of education|
|– Knowledge in the areas, materials and curriculum modules|
|– Knowledge Management|
|B. Intra and Interpersonal Competence||– Personal skills|
|– Tutorial Action|
|– Management and promotion of values|
|C. Didactic Competence||– Programming|
|– Specific didactics of areas, subjects and modules|
|– Methodology activities|
|– Attention to diversity|
|– Classroom management (learning spaces)|
|– Resources and materials|
|D. Organizational competence and Management||– Normative and regulations|
|– Organization, planning, coordination (specific job performance)|
|– Quality Management|
|E. Competence in Coexistence Management||– Promotion of coexistence|
|– Mediation, conflict resolution|
|– Control of coexistence|
|F. Teamwork Competence||– Attitudes of cooperation and collaboration|
|– Participation and involvement in joint projects|
|– Technical Working Group|
|– Decision making. Assumption of responsibility|
|G. Competence in Innovation and Improvement||– Managing change|
|– Diagnosis and evaluation|
|– Implementation and execution of proposals|
|H. Communicative and Linguistic Competence||– Information management and transparency|
|– Expression and communication|
|– Communication skills in native language|
|– Linguistic and communicative skills in foreign leagues|
|I. Digital Competence (ICT)||– Knowledge of technologies|
|– Didactic use of the same|
|– Professional development and management|
|– Attitudinal and ethical aspects|
|J. Social and Relational Competence||– Equity|
|– Social skills|
|– Relational Skills|
|– Management of participation|
Determination of the components of competencies. Prior to the definition of the components of the teacher, competence is necessary to mention what is meant by a competent teacher. Thus a competent teacher is using their knowledge, capacities, abilities, skills, values, attitudes and behaviors, to meet the challenge of educating their students. That is, it has the professional competencies necessary and sufficient to carry out the functions and achieve educational purposes.
Teachers have to educate students to succeed in developing basic competencies necessary to acquire a valuable personal project of life and be able to freely carry it out in their living environment.
Therefore, the components of competencies to be determined are knowledge, capacities, abilities and skills, attitudes and behaviors. These components are also determined to develop competencies profiles for all positions of these institutions, in the lower functional level within its structure.
Using the method of brainstorming could be reached consensus on definitions of these components. First, each team member individually drafted their ideas and the school with the facilitator independently. Then, through the group discussion, the components agreed by all members of the team of experts drafted. In conclusion, the experts from the consensus, performed the same procedure for the other positions of the institutions under study, using the same techniques and above formats. A fragment of basic labor competencies profile of teachers in educational institutions is shown in Table 6.
Table 6: Description of competencies in the basic profile.
|Didactic Competence||It focuses on the conscious use of their knowledge, capacities, abilities, and skills to bring about learning in students.|
|Knowledge||– Design didactic proposals contextualized for learning|
– Specific didactics area, material and (or) corresponding module
– Spatial and temporal contexts organization
– Classroom management models
– To experience
– To promote, encourage and motivate towards learning
– Relate and select
|Skills and abilities||– Facilitate active student learning individually and in groups|
– Combine resources, materials, relationships and contacts efficiently
– Organize student groups, effectively, before any proposal
– Design and solve educational situations successfully
|Attitudes||– Help students build their own knowledge schemes|
– Listen and devotes time required each student to initiate students in critical thinking
– Enthusiasm and pedagogical optimism
– Interest be educational vanguard and innovation
|Behaviors||– Planning the teaching-learning competencies|
– Schedule the area, subject or corresponding module
– Perform tasks adapted to the group of students
– Responding to diversity
– Use innovative, functional and suitable methods to achieve the defined objectives
– Diversify strategies, methods and learning materials
– Raising awareness of the importance of systematic information management
– Manage the progression of learning
– Evaluate the components of the educational process and learning
Design and modeling of indicators to assess results. Based on the theoretical model proposed to design a set of indicators grouped into the following perspectives:
a) Teacher Perspective. Indicators to measure the results obtained by teachers of the institution, as to the levels of competence, versatility, professional development and successful performance of their work, from the integrated development program competencies.
b) Student and family perspective. Indicators to measure how the process of development of labor competencies achieves the expected results, increases the quality of education, the needs and expectations of students and their families are met, and its relationship to the institution is achieved from the new perception of competencies developed by teachers.
c) Institution perspective. Indicators to measure how it impacts the adoption of competencies model in the overall results of the institution, which may be the increase in demand and prestige in society to fulfill their goal.
To assess the sensitivity of indicators, a pilot evaluation test with satisfactory results was performed (De Miguel Guzmán, 2001), where it was observed that all the variables that make up the indicators vary as a whole similarly that evidence that they allow evaluating the behavior of the indicators established. Sensitivity analysis of indicators through the Bartlett sphericity test results showed that all are very significant (Table 7).
Table 7: Sensitivity analysis of indicators through the Bartlett test of sphericity (outputs SPSS, version 21.0).
|Indicators||Bartlett sphericity test|
|– Level of teacher competence||255.042***|
|– Level of versatility teacher||231.241***|
|– Level competence development||48.134*|
|– Individual performance level||253.882***|
|– Level of student satisfaction||2156.382***|
|– Satisfaction level of family and social environment||183.765***|
|– Satisfaction level of demand||183.021***|
|– Prestige level of the institution||128.899***|
|– Academic level of students||259.688***|
|– Level of organizational learning||1127.870***|
The need for a model that allows the effective implementation of the competencies approach is tested, due to lack of adequate theoretical and methodological instruments to the specifications of educational institutions in the district of El Carmen, so this investigation is considered of great pertinence and relevance.
In the institution, it has not been established and properly structured the HTM system and has not been able to socialize all teachers and other employees of the institution; demonstrating that there is only known about these aspects by specialists of the district, although at lower levels are not clearly defined or not these policies and objectives are known. Moreover, communication difficulties occur, perceived dissatisfaction regarding relations between district members and persons belonging to educational institutions which are the principals and teachers.
The district education El Carmen does not guarantee the level of competence of each individual is adequate for current and future needs, principals, and rectors of educational institutions are not satisfied with the competencies to have their teachers and no records are kept or controls the knowledge, experience, and training of teachers, it is because they are not defined to collect appropriate education, training, skills and experience that teachers have records.
The conceptual model and the procedure developed conform a coherent structure from the point of theoretical and methodological view, while forming the basis of a model for integrated labor competencies in educational institutions in the district of El Carmen, which demonstrated its feasibility development and practical use as a management tool with a comprehensive approach, which allows the institution to align their strategies with competencies development needs; determine competencies profiles for all levels of the organization and their job positions; develop a generic profile for teachers of educational institutions; use the information that provide this profiles to design the HTM system; and effectively develop labor competencies, under achieving a progressive increase in the competence levels of their teachers.
The use of methodological tools developed in this research, in selected educational institutions, allowed to demonstrate their ability to align processes HTM with the development of labor competencies and strategic needs of these organizations, use the information they provide competencies profiles for design and document HTM system and ensure that it covers and influence all processes identified.
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