International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration
Volume 4, Issue 2, January 2018, Pages 49-56
The Relationship between Work-Family Conflict, Career Success Orientation and Career Development among Working Women in Indonesia
1 Lusia Adinda Dua Nurak, 2 Armanu Thoyib, 3 Noermijati Noermijati,
4 I Gede Riana
1 2 3 Faculty of Economic and Business University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
4 Faculty of Economic and Business University of Udayana, Bali, Indonesia
Abstract: This study is aimed to analyze the relationship between work-family conflict on career success orientation and career development. This study used 180 career women respondents in the governor’s office in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Qualitative and quantitative data from primary and secondary sources were collected by distributing questionnaires to the respondents. Purposive sampling was applied, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential analysis of Partial Least Square. The result shows that work-family conflict does not significantly affect women’s’ career development but significantly affects the career success orientation. Also, career success orientation significantly affects woman’s career development. This study further reveals that career success is a strategic orientation as a mediation role between work-family conflict and woman’s career development. Based on the models, this study indicates that 50.06% (Q2-predictive relevance) in the variation of the career development can be explained by career success orientation and work-family conflict.
Keywords: Women, Work family conflict, Career success orientation, Career development
The gender gap is a reality that must be faced by women in almost all parts of the world. Report of the International Labor Organization (ILO) in 2015 indicates a disparity in career opportunities for women. The gap can be found both in public and in the domestic sphere (Setyowati, and Yuliani, 2004). However, the emergence of awareness of gender equality cannot be avoided due to the fact of the increasing number of women who were involved in public organizations occupying the higher position and also the growing strength of demand for the values of human rights and democracy.
A gender perspective in public administration theory does not only address the issue of women’s participation in the bureaucracy but even sued the dominance of the male view in work (Shafritz, 1997). Brown (1997) on the equal distribution of income in the public bureaucracy specifies that most women concentrated in lower positions with lower salary levels and women work not as a policymaker. Some barriers experienced by women include lack of self-esteem, not in harmony relationships with men, lack of support from family and friends, limited life choices, lack of quality programs and fear of success (Brown and Barbosa, 2001).
Epstein (1988) suggested three groups of theories that explain the process of gender differences in employment, namely: (1) gender role socialization theory, (2) human capital theory, and (3) structural social approach. Socialization theory states that the gender differences lead to differences in personal characteristics, skills, and preferences. According to this perspective, view of culture on attitudes and behaviors of inappropriate or improper for each sex parents are socialized through messages in the image that formed by the media and communications. Socialization is also related to differences in orientation, preferences, and competencies of men and women whose influence on determining the appropriate type of work by gender. There are some studies which show that older people put high expectations on the future of their male children than female ones.
A human capital theory which is based on neoclassical economic theory suggests that gender discrimination in the workplace put women at work and low-paid positions associated with rational financial choice. This theory posited that human economic behavior is driven by the desire to maximize one’s interests. In connection with the selection of the type of women’s work, the human capital theory argues that people choose certain types of work with the objective of maximizing revenue to be obtained. The structural social theory states that women’s career opportunities were determined by opportunities. Limited opportunities for women are obstructions that limit their access to jobs dominated by men. Turner and Hulme (1997) suggested several factors that could be the opportunities and constraints for the career development of women in public bureaucracy ranging from general and fundamental elements such as a socio-cultural system to the organization’s internal factors.
How to understand the barriers to a female career in the bureaucracy of the different dimensions is stated by Guy (1993) that there are three determinants in the career development of women in public organizations: the opportunity, power, and proportion. The success of one’s career is determined by experience and job as well as the progress experienced in the course of one’s career. The majority of successful women showed the centrality of a high career, continuously work hard full-time and meet domestic responsibilities around the work. The research concluded that women are still expected to adjust themselves to a model of career success of men (Arnold and Cohen, 2008).
To be successful in a career, the woman should be able to develop better relationships with co-workers. Furthermore, to facilitate career, she should be able to take proactive steps to manage their careers (Kim 2005). Women who want to be successful in a job must accept the risk of a career that appeared as a result of her role. Most women assume that the higher risk of a career achieved is the reduction in time for the family, while women are required to continue to give considerable attention to the family. Kim (2004), argued that the woman who is already married and unmarried show substantial differences in the search for security in the workplace and maintain a balance between life at work and family life. Howard (2008) suggests the work-family conflict occurs when there is a discrepancy between the role (inter-role conflict) that gave rise to the differential pressure between family and work roles. This condition affects the orientation of career success and career development women (Komalasari, 2017). If wishing to succeed in a career, women must make career planning (Smith, 2011) to be used as a foundation for career trading the path ahead.
2. Literature Review
Meyer and Rowan (1977), stating that work-family conflict occurs when a person must meet two demands of different roles at the same time. According to Greenhauss and Beutell (1985) role conflict is a form of conflict because of their incompatibility role to play in the workplace (domestic) and families (public). Female role conflict often is one of the causes of stress in women who have worked (Ahmed, 2008). Role conflict usually leads to less than optimal work which simultaneously disrupts family life. Career women experience a host of problems such as lack of role to play in the family, household cracks and complaints from spouses because of the lack of time for family even trigger a family quarrel. This condition can interfere with the woman making it potentially raises the pressures at work and eventually lead to psychological disorders.
The concept of dual role conflict divides women into two forms (Adekola, 2010). First. work conflict occurs when the activities disturb the work of individual responsibility within the family. Women who bring work home will try to complete the work at the expense of family time (Noor, 2003). As a result, these two roles will bring stress so that women do not focus on settling claims about her role in the family environment (Williams & Alliger, 1994; Adekola, 2010). Second. Family Conflict (Family Interference with Work) occurs when the roles and responsibilities in the family interfere with work activity. So women cancel an event because of family activities (Noor, 2004). In the typical family, the working women can trigger family conflict (Voydanoff, 1988 ; Adekola, 2010).
The imbalance between work and family roles can lead to conflicting roles of working women (Greenhauss & Beutell, 1985). According to Ahmad, (2008) women have limited time and energy because they have to devote scarce resources to work and family. This imbalance becomes one of the triggers for a woman undergoing difficulties to participate in the job and of family roles together (Greenhauss & Beutell, 1985; Ahmad, 2008). Crompton and Lyonette (2011) stated imbalance tends to lead to disruption of the function of career success. Yavas et al., (2008) revealed that women’s careers could interfere with a success orientation. Based on the conceptual arguments, conflicts can interfere with the role of career success orientation that can be formulated in the following hypothesis.
Hypothesis 1. The conflict-related role is negatively associated with career success orientation.
According to Arthur and Lawrence (1984), a career is a sequence of attitudes, activity or behavior associated with the job role of the individual during their lives (Gerber et al, 2009). This definition appears with the fact that a career has two critical dimensions, one as an objective element that activity is visible and the other as a subjective element that is the attitude and orientation (Gerber et al., 2009). Smith et al. (2012), states that every woman has a diverse career success orientation. Therefore, career orientation can be defined as an attitude expressed by someone who will influence decisions related to careers (Gerber et al, 2009). This definition includes the idea that one woman who had a favorable career orientation will be able to demonstrate behavior that reflects a more severe connotation with work, organization, and career than families.
Career orientation is the readiness of individuals in making the right career decisions. In general, women only received a little practice and development, less challenging assignment that hamper the career success. According to O’Neil and Bilimoria (2005), women’s career is critical to lay a solid foundation in which the network is very strategic as a guide in career direction for long-term career success and career advancement. Besides, women with better career should continue to invest in the development of personal career for contributing the satisfaction to career success.
A common phenomenon that occurs in the world of work shows more and more the role of a career woman as the top manager. According to Komalasari, (2017), the key to success in a career woman if they have career success orientation that can be triggered to have a higher career. Orientation career success has been proven to have a strong relationship with the conflicting roles (Greenhauss and Beutell, 1985). Based on these descriptions the following hypothesis is formulated. Hypothesis 2. Career success orientation is positively related to women’s career development.
According to Mathis and Jackson (2016), the role of status is to motivate a person to be able to contribute optimally. The career of someone can go through some stages influenced by the behavior, motivations, tasks and economic conditions (Ivancevich and Hoon, 2007). Career development is open to everyone, both women, and men. However, there is a tendency of career development is a dilemma for women. Two things that are often heard is the emergence of role conflict, and fears of success in women who have been married as women entering the workforce purpose initially were to seek additional income to help meet the needs of families (Hite and Mc.Donald, 2003).
Domenico & Jones (2007), said that the role of women in the labor force more visible after World War II. Employment of women has shifted from the traditional job-oriented just on the domestic part to non-traditional careers (public) previously done by men. The participation of women in the labor force has led to the study of women’s career aspirations. O’Neil, & Bilimoria,(2005), revealed different patterns of how the career woman develops over time especially concerning the impact of career context (social, organizational, and relational) and change the image of careers and career success experienced by ladies.
Along with the passage of time, the career development of women has become an essential concept for women works to achieve a better career). Some empirical research results stated role conflict negatively affect the career development of women (Komalasari, 2017). Similarly, many studies have found that the higher the role conflict women who are already working, it will increasingly hamper career development (Cohen et al., 2009; Beauregard, 2007; and Judge, 2006).
Based on a literature review and the results of empirical research findings, then the following hypothesis is formulated. Hypothesis 3. Role conflict is negatively related to women’s career development.
This is an explanatory research that aims to explain the causal relationship between variables through hypothesis testing. The population was all career women who work in the office of the governor of East Nusa Tenggara province. The number of respondents is determined purposively by the total of the population as many as 180 samples with the response rate to reach 100%. This study used a questionnaire as a primary instrument. Role conflict was adopted from a survey developed by Greenhaus and Beutell (1985), and Komalasari (2017). The orientation of career success is adopted from Komalasari (2017), Smith (2011) and women’s career development was elaborated from Oneil and Bilimoria (2005), and Komalasari (2017). Validity and reliability of the instrument were analyzed with SPSS.20 to see the product moment correlation values (≥0,30) to test the validity and the reliability test using the method of internal consistency using alpha values Cronbach(≥0,60). To examine the relationship between the variables, Partial Least Square was employed.
4. Result and Discussion
The demographic characteristics of respondents indicated that the predominant age of the respondents above 41 years (97.2%). Only 2.8% of respondents are under the age of 31-40 years. Respondents whose working period greater than 15 years reach 98.3% and just 1.7% of respondents who have a working time between 6-15 years. The majority of respondents are in echelon IV (78.8%), and the respondents in echelon III are 21.1%. Meanwhile, from the point of education, the majority of respondents in bachelor degree (66.7%), master degree (32.2%) and the doctorate reach as much as 1.1%. Furthermore, the majority of respondents have children between 3-5 people (80.6%), more than 5 as much as 0.5%, 1-2 (16.1%), and 2.8% do not have children.
Table 1: Characteristics of Respondents
|No||Description||N = 180||Percentage|
|5||Number of Children|
Using Partial least square (PLS), the convergent validity coefficient was measured using outer loading as described in the following table.
Table 2: Convergent Validity
|1||Role Conflict||Behavioral-based conflict||0.903||9.98|
|Subordinate directing in problem-solving||0721||12:49|
|Creativity in determining the direction of the organization||0652||37.20|
|Love in the work charged||0705||33.95|
|Motivated to carry out the work||0879||12.65|
|Loyalty to the work||0871||9.82|
|Understanding in the development of a future career||0742||15.71|
|Having expectations about career development forward||0760||15.28|
|Career success expectations||0698||9.39|
|Faced with a challenging job||0826||28.16|
|Managing with a balanced responsibility||0844||33.84|
|Taking an active stance on issues of fairness in career||0645||9.26|
|Overcoming barriers to diversity of work and the environment||0758||14.50|
Table 3: Endogenous Variables, composite reliability and average variance extracted
|Variables||R-square endogenous variables||Composite reliability||Average variance extracted (AVE)||Remark|
|Career success orientation||0057||0878||0594||Fulfilled|
Results of the goodness of fit indicate that the model has met the composite reliability with the coefficient of ≥ 0.70 (cut off ≥0,70). Similarly, the discriminant validity examination showed the model had met the discriminant validity criteria based on the average variance extracted (AVE) ≥0,50 (cut off ≥0,50). While the inner goodness of fit models are calculated with the formula Q2 = 1 – (1-R12)(1-R22) = 1- (0.943)%. This means that 50.06% variable variation career development can be predicted by the variable career success orientation and role conflict of women, while the rest predicted by other variables that exist outside the research models. Results of analysis Partial Least Square (PLS2) based on indicators that are valid in the model are presented in the following figure.
Figure 1: Correlation among construct
Based on Figure 1, the structural relationships between variables is shown in the following table.
Table 4: Hypothesis Testing Results
|The original sample estimate||Mean of sub-samples||Standard Deviation||t-Statistic|
|WFC -> CSO||-0.238||-0.238||0.080||2.995|
|WFC -> Career Development||-0.107||-0.117||0.060||1.776|
|CSO -> Career Development||0. 655||0.660||0.043||15.296|
Table 4 showed the role conflict negatively affects career success orientation (β = -0.238 and t-statistic 2.995 higher than the critical t 1.97). Family conflicts job proved to inhibit the orientation of career success for the career woman. According to Greenhaus et al. (2001) declining in creativity and aggressive attitude of women in enhancing career orientation resulted in a successful career woman to be low to encourage women looking for a job and a new field for career. According to Edwards and Rothbard (2000), the behavior displayed in one role will affect the practice in other parts thus reducing the aggressiveness and defeatism in the face of the challenges of a career.
The analysis also showed that family conflicts job had no significant negative effect on women’s career development (β = -0.107 and 1.776 t-statistic is lower than the critical t 1.97). According to Dessler (2016), career development is a lifelong series of activities that contribute to the exploration, establishment, success, and fulfillment of one’s career. Work-family conflict experienced by the woman is being with the average – average (mean) of 2.92, which means that they can manage family conflicts job at hand. However, among the types of family work conflicts, strain-based conflict has a low average (2.07), and behavioral-based conflict has a higher average (3.78). Information obtained shows women who feel anxious if the family does not support the work, cannot concentrate at work. The family problem will reduce the ability of women to manage multiple responsibilities and to balance between personal and professional responsibility. However, women’s career development will be influenced by the support provided by the families (Beauregard, 2007 and Lirio, et al.,2007) and some barriers to domestic roles that have become a stereotype for women (Mayrhofer et al,2007). If this continues to happen then, work-family conflict will reduce the ability of women to overcome obstacles and differences in the organizational environment.
Furthermore, career success orientation has a significant positive effect on women’s career development (β = -0.655 15.296 and t-statistics are higher than the critical t 1.97). The description of the woman’s perception of orientation career development is perceived high (4.04). Thus, it can be informed that the woman has been able to demonstrate knowledge and personal skills that they understand more about career steps that must be taken. It is also reported that the woman has a good understanding of how the actions that have been passed in achieving career success today. Schein (1996) in a career anchor theory has provided guidance on how to plan a successful woman in career development. When a woman has a high career success orientation, then the woman will be able to develop a career. Women who have high career success orientation tend to try to overcome all obstacles that may arise in a job (Cornelius and Skinner, 2008; Lynes and Thompson, 2000). Career development is perceived by the woman as high (4.09), which means that they can manage some of the responsibilities given to the balance between personal and professional roles and be able to face a challenging job to perform.
This study examined the relationship between family job conflict, career success orientation, and women’s career development. This study found empirical evidence that family conflicts are related negatively to career orientation, family conflict is related negatively to women’s career development. However, The results of this study found some necessary implications that when there is a discrepancy between the behavior desired by the second part (family or job), then the woman is not able to develop a career well. Similarly, women feeling that the behavior patterns associated with one role have the possibility of having a mismatch with expectations in other functions will hamper their career development. In other words, when specific behaviors that are required in one role does not fit, they will reduce aggressiveness, perseverance, and desire to get a balance between personal life with work. Furthermore, women who have a desire to obtain a job that can guarantee future careers tend to be able to develop further that they can succeed in careers.
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