International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development
Volume 8, Issue 4, October 2022, Pages 16-27
The Importance of Actor’s Role in the Formulation of Local Regulation of Alcoholic Beverages in Magelang City
URL: https://doi.org/10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.84.2002Hendrarto1, Sri Suwitri1, Endang Larasati1, Tri Yuniningsih1
1 Faculty of Social and Political Sciences , Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Abstract: In the context of regional policy formulations, the dominance of actors can be seen from which actors have initiatives in the formulation of regional policies. Actors, who have initiatives on the formulation of a regional policy, generally have a dominant influence in incorporating their agenda into policy’s formulation. This study aims to observe the importance role of actors in the formulation mechanism of local regulatory policies on alcoholic beverages in Magelang City. Research methods are used through qualitative descriptive approaches. With the focus of research is the formulation of regional policies on the rules of alcoholic beverages in Magelang City. In the formulation process, at least involve two groups of actors related, namely Official Policy-Makers and Unofficial Participants. However, in the formulation process of Magelang City Regulation No. 10 in 2016 concerning Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcoholic Beverages does not involve private and community components. In other words, the formulation of regional policy contained in Magelang City Regulation No. 10 in 2016 concerning Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcoholic Beverages uses a top-down policy system approach.
Keywords: Policy Formulation, Actor Role, Regional Regulation, Alcohol Beverages, Magelang City
Ideally, in issuing the quality and legitimate policies, the formulation of public policy should involve multi actors in order to expand information as the basis for determining policy choices imposed by the government (Jordan and Turnpenny, 2015). In addition, in policy formulations also have to go through a variety of complicated processes.
The formulation of public policy was an arena for the exchange of actors’ resources involved in it to articulate the interests of each (Dunn, 2003). The formulation of public policy as an effort to find the best policy alternative options to address a policy problem, cannot be determined simply, but should go through a series of processes by involving the policy stakeholders themselves (Gosling, 2005). The government in formulating the policy should involve actors who are representative (James E. Anderson, 2003; Cochran and Malone, 2009) relates on theory from (Stewart, Jr., J., Hedge, D. M., and Lester, 2008).
Such policy actors may be distinguished into as follows: (a) lead actors (official, or structural), and (b) non-major (unofficial, or non-structural) actors. Of the two categories of actors, state power (supra political structure) has the power to force (Husaen and Thamrin, 2017), and private sector (political infrastructure) with its capital capabilities (Ng and Loosemore, 2007). The dominance of actor power is able to determine the interests of which actors are born as winners in the fight for interests in the arena of policy formulation. In such situations, it is not easy for a society that only has the power in the form of the ability to gather mass to face the power state with its bureaucratic ranks or private with the power of its capital, especially if the two actors collaborate in fighting for a common goal. As a result, the actual state or government serves as a tool to organize mutual welfare for its citizens (Anshari, Kershaw, van der Kaars, and Jacobsen, 2004), but due to the massive mobilization of private capital to the state, making the private sector often more dominant in influencing the policies set and authorized by the State (Grindle, 1980).
In this study, Magelang City chosen as the research location with the consideration that Magelang city is one of the areas that become the destination of the circulation of alcohol beverages. Consumers of liquor circulating in Magelang City are dominated by children of productive age, especially those who are still students (Magelang City Police, 2020). Magelang city as an intercity track area is an area that becomes one of the lines as well as a destination for the delivery of Liquor, in addition to Wonosobo, and Purworejo. The number of alcohol beverages in Magelang City is quite high as stated in the following table:
Table 1: The Comparison of Alcohol Distribution among Three Regions
|Cities/ Districts||Alcohol Finish-Off|
|Magelang City||Destruction of 1,653 bottles and 30 liters of Liquor|
|Purworejo||Culling of 5,180 bottles of alcohol beverages|
|Wonosobo||Destruction of 2,013 liquor bottles of various types|
The high number of alcohol beverages in Magelang City compared to the two surrounding cities if these researchers look at the number of residents and the region, Magelang City is among the highest, so it is a concern of many parties. The Alcohol Beverage Regulation is expected to be one of the local government’s measures to control, supervise and foster the circulation and sale of alcohol beverages.
Policy formulation is one of the stages in the formulation of public policy. (LAN, 2015) defined the policy formulation as a development activity of plans and methods (policy alternatives) to solve public problems that have been agreed in a government agenda and ended with an election activity against the best alternative (decision making) to solve the public problem. According to (Prasetyo, 2012) Policy formulation was how to develop choices or alternatives to solve public problems as well as who participates in them.
In the context of the formulation of Local Regulation, the dominance of actors can be seen from which actors have initiatives in the formulation of the Local Regulation. The Actors, who have initiatives on the formulation of Local Regulation, generally have a dominant influence in incorporating their agenda into the formulation of its Local Regulation. Related to the initiator of Local Regulation, in the following table can be seen the table of Local Regulation and its initiators in Magelang City.
Based on Table 2 above explains that regional heads dominate the initiator of Regional Regulation. Local regulations of Regional Representatives initiative are minimal or on average only one Local Regulation annually from the average of twelve produced by the Local Government. The data above shows that the formulation of Local Regulation is often a place to demonstrate the dominance of power between the executive and legislative on the one hand and between the government and the private sector on the other.
When it comes to actors involved in policy formulations, internal government is often an interesting attraction to incorporate its interest agenda into policy. Many cases of Local Regulation are dominated by the executive agenda in this case the regional head. Such dominance occurs in various levels of policy formulation processes, including in incorporating the agenda into the content of the Local Regulation.
Conflicts of interest between actors in the formulation of Local Regulation policy are inevitable. Because of these interests resulted in various obstacles in the formulation process of Local Regulation, especially when it comes to the Regulation that has a wide urgency to the community as in the formulation of the Regulation of Alcoholic Beverages in Magelang City. In the formulation of Magelang City Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Alcoholic Beverages (hereinafter referred to as The Regulation of Alcoholic Beverages) which became the object in this study. The attraction is caused by differences in views and influence grabbing among various actors. The Differences views mainly occur regarding the urgency, and Regulation content of alcoholic beverages for the community of Magelang City.
Table 2: The Local Regulation of Magelang City bases on Initiators
|Local Regulation No. 1 in 2016 about Regional Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMD) 2016-2021 (WALIKOTA MAGELANG, 2016)||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 2 in 2016 about accountability report Implementation of Magelang City budget in 2015||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 3 in 2016 about Formation and Arrangement of Regional Devices||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 4 in 2016 about Hajj pilgrim||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 5 in 2016 about Public Information Order||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 6 in 2016 about Second Amendment to Regional Level II Magelang Municipal Regulation No. 270 in 1978||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 7 in 2016 about Amendment to Local Regulation No. 12 in 2009 concerning BPR Bank Magelang trading company||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 8 in 2016 about Changes in The Regional Budget in 2016||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 9 in 2016 about Capital Participation of the City Government in Regional Owned Enterprises||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 10 in 2016 about alcohol beverage||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 11 in 2016 about Second Amendment to Local Regulation No. 2 in 2010 on Education Implementation System||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 12 in 2016 about Amendment to Regulation No. 9 of 2013 on The Implementation and Funeral Services||District Head|
|Local Regulation No. 13 in 2016 about Children Protection||Regional Representatives|
Source: Secretariat of Regional Representatives of Magelang City, 2020
2. Research Method
This research is included in qualitative research with a case study approach. Qualitative research is a research approach that aims to explore and understand the meaning of a number of individuals or groups as a source of social or humanitarian problems. Research is conducted by asking questions, collecting specific data from participants, conducting data analysis, and interpreting the meaning of data (Creswell, J, 2014). The focus of this study is the Importance of The Role of Actors in the Formulation of Regional Regulation policy on alcoholic beverages in Magelang City.
Qualitative data analysis is the process of systematically finding and compiling data obtained from in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD), field notes and documentation. These are executed by organizing data into categories, disseminating into units, conducting synthesis, putting together patterns, choosing which are important and which will be studied, and making conclusions so that they are easily understood by yourself and others (Sugiyono, 2014).
3. Result and Discussion
Actors are people and groups involved in a public policy process and have an influence on the policy. According to (Roman, 2017) actors formulation of this policy was a set of interconnected cast structures or actors that function authoritatively to allocate values for a society. In the approach of the political system, the actors involved in the process of formulating policy are based on two political substructures, namely infrastructure and political superstructure (Popoola, 2016).
However, if the power of the state (supra political structure) in the form of coercive power had been stated by (Weale, 2017) and private (infra political structure) with the ability of capital (A Giddens, 1984). Certainly, it is not easy for people who only have the power of mass gathering to face the power of the state with its bureaucratic ranks, or private with the power of its capital, especially if these two actors are laboratory in fighting for a common goal. As a result, the actual state or government serves as a tool to organize common welfare for its inhabitants (Muhammad and Husen, 2019), but due to the massive mobilization of private capital to the state, making private parties often more dominant in influencing state-enacted and authorized policies (Grindle, 2017). This is not only the logic of why a policy that actually gets the opposition of the community, but also the government still authorizes it.
Policy formulation is an early process in a policy. It is at the core of public policy because at this stage formulated the boundaries of the policy itself. According to (Hai, 2016), policy formulation was a development of plans and methods (policy alternatives) to solve public problems that have been agreed in a government agenda and ended with an election activity against the best alternative (decision making) to solve the public problem. Policymakers are often referred to as actors of policy formulation.
In the context of public policy, actors are required to play behavior that suits their role. In the making of local regulations that are issued by Magelang City government through several stages. One of those stages is a policy formulation involving policy actors. The policy actors are made up both of official and unofficial actors. Policy actors in policy formulations act as implementers of coordination with stakeholders well conducted by the government as official actors. In addition, the government is expected to be able to be a facilitator of unofficial actors such as private and public in integrating the interests in the formulation of the policy, so that in the future there is already a legal umbrella on problems in the community (Haelg, Sewerin, and Schmidt, 2020).
In each process, the formulation of the policy raises various views of each owner’s interests in influencing a policy. Actors are people and groups involved in a public policy process and have an influence on the policy. According to (J E Anderson, 2003), policy formulations can involve a variety of actors. The actors come from state actors as well as non-state actors, namely as official policy makers and non-government participants.
According to (Robertson, Biddle, and Thomas, 1966) in discussing the role of grouping into four groups, namely: a) people who take part in social interactions, b) behaviors that arise in such social interactions, c) the position of people in behavior, d) the relationship between people and behavior. Role is a social interaction in society that describes the expectations that lead individuals to behave in their daily lives. Based on the results of the actor identification above, then in this section the researchers explain the role of each actor in the formulation of the Regulation on alcoholic beverages in Magelang City.
- Official Policy Makers
- District Head/ Mayor
The Regional Head has a central role in every policy implementation activity at the regional level. Based on Article 18 paragraph (6) ACT Constitution 1945, local government has the right to establish local regulations and other regulations to carry out autonomy and auxiliary duties. The mandate of Article 18 amendments to ACT Constitution 1945 was reaffirmed in the last Local Government Law with Law No. 23 in 2014. It is concerning Local Government that the Regional Regulation as a type of legislation made by the Regional Head in conjunction with Regional Representative is stipulated in Article 236 to Article 254 of ACT No. 23 in 2014 on Local Government.
The handover and/or granting authority of government affairs to the Local Government to make regional legal products is certainly not easy because there will be juridical issues related to the relationship between the Central Government and local government. An important aspect that has always been an issue is synchronization and harmonization of regional regulations with other aspects concerning supervision of local regulations both at the provincial and district / city levels so as not to conflict with higher regulations.
Based on the provisions as mentioned in Article 65 paragraph (1) and article (2) above, the Regional Head clearly has authority in the formation of the Blood Regulation. The implementation of the authority is carried out with the Regional Representative in accordance with the mechanisms specified in the legislation to be discussed together and to obtain mutual approval of the Draft Regional Regulations before it is ratified into Regional Regulations. The Regional Head makes and sets the Regional Regulations after obtaining the approval of the Regional Representative.
In the process of formulating local regulations, the Regional Head has a number of devices as an element of local government organizers, one of which is the legal part that has the task of assisting the Regional Head. One of the tasks in the field of local government law is to make a Draft Regional Regulation (Ranperda) if indeed Ranperda is needed for later the results are brought by the Regional Head and discussed with Regional Representative.
The role of the Regional Head along with all his devices is very needed in the manufacture of a statutory product. It is such as Local Regulations because if the Regional Regulation has been ratified, then the one who runs the regulation is the Head Region as the head of government where they lead, the Regional Head in carrying out their duties to make regional regulations of course assisted by regional devices that are competent in the field. Therefore, the existence of the legal part in the structure of local government is an absolute thing but surely have to be balanced with the maximum capability, especially the ability to make a Draft Regional Regulation.
In the ACT mentioned that the Regional Head stipulates the Regional Regulation after obtaining the approval with Regional Representative, thus in the formulation of the Regional Regulation of the Head Region together with the Regional Representative has the same power to determine. This is considering the right of initiative that is also owned by Regional Representative in the formulation of local regulations. In addition to the right of initiative, Regional Representative also has the right to make changes to a regional regulation. Regional Representative also has the right to give consent and or not to give consent. Therefore, the existence of Regional Representative in the implementation of local government in general and the formation of regulations in particular have an important and decisive role. It is also in line with the sound of Article 236 of (Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2014) on Local Government determining that the making of Regional Regulations is carried out jointly by regional heads and Regional Representative.
- Regional Device Organization
1) Department of Industry and Trade
2) Pamong Praja Police Unit (Satpol PP)
- Regional Representative
1) The Head of Regional Representative
Regional Representative as an element of local government organizers is also one of the actors of policy formulation. One of the authorities of Regional Representative is authorized to form Regional Regulations. The authority is attributed, because it is given by (Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2014) on Local Government for Regional Representative. Therefore, the use must be done based on accountable and transparency principles, so that it is completely in accordance with the underlying regulations. This authority certainly cannot be separated from the authority owned by 7 by the executive, Article 236 paragraph (2) (Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2014) concerning Local Government of The Regulation can only be formed jointly between Regional Representative and the Local Government.
The relationships are between the two executive institutions and legislative in the implementation of local government in general, and the establishment of local regulations in particular, namely partnership relationships. The Local Regulation product cannot be released from cooperation between the Local Government and Regional Representative. When referring to the theory of authority as outlined above, then in the Indonesian constitutional system, the authority of the establishment of the Regulation does not lie in the power of Regional Representative, but rather lies in the power of two institutions or two organs at once, namely at the authority of Regional Representative and the Local Government. Because there is no authority to establish a Regulation is only done by Regional Representative without the Government. Although the ACT states that the Regional Head stipulates the Regulation with the approval of Regional Representative, it does not mean that all the authority to form a Regional Regulation is on the Regional Head, and Regional Representative only gives approval but Regional Representative is equipped with the right to submit a draft regulation and the right to make changes.
Regional Representative as an element of local government organizers has three functions, namely the establishment of Regional Regulations, budget functions and supervisory functions (Sørensen, Hendriks, Hertting, and Edelenbos, 2020). While the Regional Head performs the function of implementation of regional regulations and regional policies, therefore the making of the Regulation is prohibited contrary to the provisions of higher legislation, public interest and / or decency.
According to (Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2014) was concerning Local Government Article 250 paragraph (2) referred to as contrary to the public interest are;
- a) Disruption of harmony between citizens
- b) Impaired access to public services
- c) Disruption of peace and public order
- d) Disruption of economic activities to improve the welfare of the community, and/or
- e) Discrimination against ethnicity, religion and beliefs, race, between groups and genders.
As for the duties and authorities of Regional Representative in (Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2014) was concerning Local Government Article 101, namely:
- a) Establishing a Regulation discussed with the Regional Head to obtain mutual approval.
- b) Discussing and giving approval of the draft Regulation on with the Regional Head.
- c) Carrying out supervision on the implementation of regulation and Regional Budget Revenue.
- d) Electing the Governor of the Regent/Mayor.
- e) Proposing the appointment and dismissal of the Governor of regents / mayors
- f) Providing opinions and considerations to the Local Government on the draft international treaties in the region.
- g) Giving approval to the international cooperation plan carried out by the Local Government.
- h) Requesting a report on the accountability of the Governor of regents / mayors in the implementation of local government.
- i) Giving approval to the plan of cooperation with other regions or with third parties that burden the community and the region.
- j) Carrying out other duties and authorities stipulated in the provisions of the ACT and regulations.
In the formulation of the Alcohol Beverage Regulation, according to the Chairman of the Magelang City Parliament, that the formulation of the Regulation is inseparable from the role of law firms, centers, including users. According to the Chairman of Regional Representative, before the draft of the Regulation in plenary, the legislation asks for input of hoteliers and tour operators, as well as academics from the campus.
1) Regional Regulatory Establishment Agency (Bapemperda)
Other parties from the internal of Regional Representative of Magelang City involved in the formulation process of Local Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages, namely from the Regional Regulatory Establishment Agency (Bapemperda). Bepemperda always consult and discuss together with the mayor of Magelang qq. Bureau of Law.
Bepemperda actively discussed the regulation that will be formed together with the law bureau Regional Secretary of Magelang City, the regional device of regional planning meeting advocates. Related to the establishment of Regulation No. 10 of 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages, Bepemperda collaborated directly with the Department of Industry and Trade of Magelang City.
The discussions in the meeting were about the process of harmonization of the ACT with legislation and other regulations. In the establishment of Local Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages, Regional Regulatory Establishment Agency (Bapemperda) plays a role in ensuring the conformity of the proposed regional planning meeting with the prevailing laws and regulations at the time. In the event that there is a proposed regional planning meeting that is not in accordance with the legislation, then to the regional device initiators of the regulation are asked to adjust first.
While related to the content of the substance to be regulated in the regional planning meeting is not discussed in a detail manner. Regional Regulatory Establishment Agency (Bapemperda) only focuses on harmonizing draft regional planning meeting with related legislation, while concerning the content of the substance is only briefly reviewed. The content and substance are submitted to the Special Committee (Pansus) of the instigators of each regional planning meeting.
2) Chairman of the Regional Legislation Agency
According to the Chairman of the Regional Legislation Agency, related to the discussion of the article (content) that becomes input and interests, Regional Legislation Agency (Balegda) specifically does not exist. Regional Legislation Agency (Balegda) accepted the proposed regulation in draft form. The executive along with related agencies, such as the village, regional service units, and the community, has discussed the draft. Draft of regional planning meeting received by Balegda usually discussed by the relevant agencies and included in the academic text of the regulation in the initial process.
Regional legislation bodies as fittings council has a coordination obligation for the preparation of regional legislation program between Regional Representative and the Local Government. In addition, Regional Legislation Agency (Balegda) other task is to harmonize, round and strengthen the conception of the regional planning meeting before it is presented to the Chairman of Regional Representative.
- Unofficial Participants: Academism
Actor formulation of the second regional regulation is from elements unofficial participants namely academics. According to UMM Academicians, that in the formulation of this Alcoholic Beverage Regulation, that the involvement of outside parties (Executive and Legislative) does not have too big a role in the preparation. According to him, outsiders only provide inputs in a joint meeting. However, the final determinant of the clause in the Regulation is Regional Representative, and Regional Device Organization related to the Analysis of the Role of Actors in the Formulation of Alcoholic Beverage Policy in Magelang City,
Actors are people and groups involved in a public policy process and have an influence on the policy. According to (Enserink et al., 2010), actors formulation of this policy is a set of interconnected cast structures or actors that function authoritatively to allocate values for a society. In the approach of the political system, the actors involved in the process of formulating policy are based on two political substructures, namely infrastructure and political superstructure (Enserink et al., 2010).
However, if the power of the state (supra political structure), in the form of coercive power (Pierzchalski, 2021), and private (political infrastructure) with its capital capabilities (Anthony Giddens, 2015). It is certainly not easy for a society that only has the power of mass gathering to face the power of the state with its bureaucratic ranks, or private with the power of its capital, especially if these two actors are working in the fight for a common goal. As a result, the actual state or government serves as a tool to organize common welfare for its inhabitants (Ikeanyibe, Eze Ori, and Okoye, 2017), but due to the massive mobilization of private capital to the state, making private parties often more dominant in influencing state-enacted and authorized policies (Grindle, 2017). This is the logic of why a policy that actually gets the opposition of the community, but the government still authorizes it.
- Behaviors That Appear In The Interaction of The Formulation of Alcohol Beverage Regulation in Magelang City
In relation to interactions from the government to the government, the form of behavior that arises based on the results of interviews with sources is command and coordination. If you look at the structure of the formulation team of Local Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of the Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages, the form of orders and coordination is a reasonable behavior occurs, because of the hierarchical form of the constituent team. In relation to interactions from the government to the private sector and the public, the form of behavior that arises based on the results of interviews with sources is cooperation. In the case of formulation of Local Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages, the form of cooperation arises due to the demand and supply from the government to the private sector.
The government needs a review of alcohol beverages as well as physical support such as infrastructure and software or applications. Private sector provides this by expecting reciprocity in the form of materials and status. In addition, interactions conducted by the government and the public resulted in the behavior of policy acceptance conducted by the public towards Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages.
- The Position of Each Policy Actor
In the context of policy formulation, an actor’s position means the position or circumstances of an actor in the process of policy formulation. Based on the results of the study, the position of each policy actor in the formulation process of Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages, often determined by how much the government wants to involve other elements in the policy implementation. In the formulation process of Regulation No. 10 in 2016 was concerning Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages, Magelang City government restricts private and public movement so that private and public involvement in the discussion process of the Regulation is very lacking.
It becomes a problem where the resulting policy later becomes vulnerable to abuse and implementation. In addition, policies that do not involve other elements can also have an unacceptable impact on a policy for the wider community. In terms of formulation of Regulation No. 10 in 2016 was concerning Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages. The position owned by the government is the main actor of policy represented by Department of Industry and Trade, Licensing Office, Health Ministry, and Pamong Praja Police Unit, while academics and the public are secondary actors of policy.
- Correlation of Policy Actor’s Standing with Behavior in Policy Formulation
The position level of policy actors in policy formulations will determine the behavior of the policy actors. Magelang City Government, which is the main actor in the formulation of Regulation No. 10 in 2016 was concerning Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages, has a very wide authority in determining which parties can be involved. The government wants good cooperation between the government and other actors such as legislative. In addition, in terms of government relations with the community, the community received control of alcoholic beverages in Magelang City.
- The Power and Interest of Policy Actors
At this stage, the actors are divided into four quadrants, namely a) crowd (weak in power and interest); b) context setters (have power but only have a small direct interest); c) the subject is a stakeholder who has interest but with little power; and d) players are stakeholders who have significant power and interest.
The Department of Industry, Trade, and The Law Bureau of Magelang City Municipality have the highest level of interest and strength so that it can be classified as a player in the formulation of Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages. This is because the government has the highest power when compared to non-government actors. Although, the Department of Industry and Trade as well as ACT Bureau of Magelang City Municipality have an interest in all dimensions of Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Department of Industry and Trade as well as ACT Bureau of Magelang City Municipality actually have a high level of interest.
Furthermore, the positions of the Licensing Office, Health Office, Pamong Praja Police Unit, Regional Representative, academician and provincial law bureaus are also classified as players. Although the level of strength is not the same as the Secretary of Magelang City and the Field of Law of Magelang City, they have a less level of interest so that it is considered more passive when compared to the Secretary of Magelang City and the Field of Law of Magelang City.
There are two main actors in the establishment of Regional Regulations (James E. Anderson, 2003) namely: official policy-makers; and actors of non-governmental participants. Actors in the formulation of regional policies consist of executives along with several Regional Device Work Units. It is namely Disperindag (Department of Industry and Trade), Health Ministry, Licensing Office, Magelang Municipal Law Office, and Pamong Praja Police Unit. in addition to the executive at the city government level, also involved the central Java provincial government law firm as a higher agency that acts to align the existing laws and regulations in the environment.
While the legislative actors involved in the regulation formulation are those elements of the Regional Legislation Agency and the Regional Regulatory Agency. In addition to the executive and legislative elements, actors involved in the Regulation formulation are academies. Regarding policy socialization, it is only limited to the bureaucratic level and does not touch directly to the community. The formulation process does not involve a broad party, such as the community. Even the actors involved are not all bureaucratic levels even initiators only come from a few people.
When associated with Elite Theory in the Model of Public Policy Formulation, the government cannot always accommodate the interests of the private or public sectors. Therefore, the government as the holder of power has the authority to exercise power according to their wishes. Private and public participation is so minimal in the formulation of Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages is the implication of policy formulation in the elite model, which in a positive view that the government will bring its region to better conditions.
On the other hand, Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages is a policy characterized by a top-down approach, where the role of the government is so dominant compared to the private and public. Therefore, in the policy of Regulation No. 10 in 2016 on Control, Supervision and Development of the Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages from the community shifted to become policy users. Community as a policy user, it will appear the role of the community as social control later.
The Local Regulation of Alcohol Beverages is one of the concrete steps of Magelang City government to control, supervise and foster the circulation and sale of alcohol beverages. The formulation of Magelang City regulation policy No. 10 in 2016 concerning Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcoholic Beverages became a concrete step of the Magelang City Government in accordance with its authority.
In the formulation process, at least involve two groups of actor’s related, namely official policy-makers and Unofficial Participants. However, in the formulation process of Magelang City Regulation No. 10 in 2016 was concerning Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages does not involve private and community components. In other words, the formulation of regional policy contained in Magelang City Regulation No. 10 in 2016 was concerning Control, Supervision and Development of The Circulation and Sale of Alcohol Beverages applies a top-down policy system approach.
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