International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development
Volume 3, Issue 3, August 2017, Pages 52-58
Politicization Bureaucracy in the Implementation of Regional Chief Election
Doctoral Student of Development Studies, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Abstract: Bureaucracy is an important instrument in the country as a bridge between people and government. However, the strength of the role and function of bureaucracy often makes the rulers abusing bureaucracy for political ends, especially the perpetuation of power. The era of regional autonomy with direct regional head elections made the head of the region have the right to determine its bureaucratic officials in the region. Later, officials of the bureaucracy are also likely to be used for award of the tool in the context of general elections that followed for the next period. It is expressed as the politicization of the bureaucracy for winning the local elections. The local elections in Medan city became one example of the phenomenon of the politicization of the bureaucracy. Harahap Rahudman victory at the General Election of Medan in 2010 to form the politicization of the bureaucracy that causes power can be continued in the next period. This happens because the positions of the existing bureaucracy have intervened before to follow the will of the political authorities in the city of Medan. Own bureaucratic officials follow the will of the Mayor of Medan and keep the position or position in government institutions. The phenomenon of the politicization of the bureaucracy will give rise to a negative meaning of the bureaucracy which initially should be the government’s tool to serve the people and also lead to disruption of the bureaucratic model that should be professional (merit).
Keywords: Politicization of Bureaucracy, Local Election, Bureaucracy
The direct regional head election is an election system to determine the leader of the public/political charged with leading bureaucracy in running the government. Implementation of Direct local elections as part of democratization at the local level. After the reform, it is carried out in Indonesia which in turn changed the political constellation at the national and local level. It is much more democratic and dynamic than ever before. The process of consolidation of democracy with direct regional head elections at the local level have to accommodate each individual’s voice and has the advantage over the recruitment of political representation or implemented through the mechanism of parliamentary elections. Design of regional autonomy through direct regional head elections held since 2005 have also differentiated from the previous models in the way of efficiency (emphasizing efficiency and uniformity) and participatory model (emphasis on democratic values and diversity).
The current model which implemented direct elections is designed as a medium to deliver the people to the implementation of local government a strong, effective, and efficient in providing services to the public. On the other hand, direct regional head elections also gave birth to the increasingly fierce competition among political actors at the local level. It can be seen from several factors, such as the increasingly diverse strategies of political parties at the local level to attract sympathy and attention of society, the emergence of the political elite new locale, to the dynamic pattern of relationships between politicians (political interest) with the local government bureaucracy before execution election (politicization of the bureaucracy) and after the elections (recruitment bureaucratic positions).
Issues related to bureaucracy is the part that often became the main focus. This is because the pattern of the relationship between the bureaucracy and politics in the context of the local elections does not only happen before the local elections held, but the pattern of relationship that is the interplay between the two occur in before the local elections, during and after the local elections completed and has produced a winner (elected regional heads). In the process leading up to and in the implementation of local elections, the frequent politicization of the bureaucracy by the political elites to achieve their political interests in the election of the head of the area. Furthermore, the pattern of this relationship continued when the head of the area has been selected, the recruitment pattern of the positions of the bureaucracy is strongly influenced by the pattern of a prior relationship, and tend to be highly political. This, of course, resulted in disruption of the bureaucratic model that should be professional (merit) by the pressure of political interests of elected leaders.
The bureaucracy is a form of tiered institutions, recruitment based on expertise, and impersonal aspects. Politics is the attempt to define rules that can be accepted by most of the residents to bring society towards a harmonious life together. However, in practice, frequent disturbances on the need for the professionalism of the bureaucracy by political interests. Referring to Mark Turner and David Hulme in his Governance, Administration, and Development, this tends to occur in third world countries. They said that the emergence of the problem of professionalism level of the bureaucracy in the third world countries is the implications of colonialism that forges bureaucratic institutions, far from modern professionalism.
This condition would be contrary to the principle of ideal bureaucracy introduced by Max Weber. The central characteristic of the bureaucratic model of Weber is a systematic division of labor, where the characteristics of the ideal are:
The existence of a hierarchical structure, including delegation of authority from top to bottom in the organization. (A hierarchical structure involving delegation of authority from the top bottom of organization);
The existence of a series of job positions that each has the duty and responsibility of the firm. (A series late Officials positions, each having prescribed duties and responsibilities); There are rules, regulations, and standards that govern the formal organizational work and the behavior of its members. (Formal rules, regulations, and standards governing the operations at the organization and behavior of members);
The presence of personnel who are technically qualified is hired by a career with promotions based on qualifications and performance (technically qualified personnel employed on a career basis, with promotion based on qualifications and performance).
Critics of the ideal type of bureaucracy according to Max Weber is directed at the absence of these ideas in seeing political relations with the bureaucracy. Implementation of the ideal bureaucracy exactly as intended by Weber often hampered by crossing political interests become the “master” of the bureaucracy itself. With the implementation of direct regional elections in Indonesia have shown a more dynamic relationship between political interests and the implementation of local bureaucracy. Seeing the Indonesian government, the chief executive in relations with subordinates, a unit established bureaucracy, which has at least some interest. The first is the current survival, where they must be able to survive in position until the term expires. On the one hand, it should be an effective government where they have to govern effectively by creating sustainable economic development and achievements that can make the voters choose them again at the next election. On the other hand, it is a creation of loyal machine where executives need to create a political organization with a high personal fidelity.
These interests are often blamed to be the cause of unprofessional bureaucracy in Indonesia. Ideally, it is supposed that the head of the region can maintain neutrality in determining positions by the principle of bureaucratic red tape that is professionalism, merit system, tiered and others. However, with the implementation of the direct election of regional heads who demanded the head of the region should still be able to maintain the loyalty Constitution (community) constituents, the determination of bureaucratic positions often become a tool to get closer to the head area with the community through the program. In addition to the politicization massifnya contestation of bureaucracy, in local elections, tend to make the regional head office bureaucracy as a concession to the loyalty of bureaucrats supporters during the local elections. It does not tend to pay attention to the principles of ideal bureaucracy in the determination of positions.
Ideal Bureaucracy, bureaucracy, and politicization of bureaucracy Recruitment Officer. In order to create public service, bureaucracy is inseparable in the life of the country. Bureaucracy can be understood as a system of government that is run by government employees which are so bound by civil service rules. Thus, slowing the rise in the level of due process must go through multi-storey offices. At the administrative level, the country has a strong dependence on the bureaucracy that ensures the country’s ability to cope with the consequences brought about by the processes of differentiation as a result of modernization. Bureaucracy is an institution that has a great ability to move the organization because of the bureaucracy formally laid out to give birth to rational action in an organization. Bureaucracy by Max Weber as a form of organization that is characterized by the hierarchy, specialization roles, and a high level of competence shown by the officials who are trained to fill those roles.
Bureaucracy is defined as a system of government run by employees for central and local government agencies are adhering to the hierarchy. From the above definition, it can be concluded that the bureaucracy is a tool of the government to carry out their duties that protect the public by meeting the needs of people. As representatives of the people, bureaucratic tasks are aimed to convey their aspirations to the government. So, the bureaucracy is regarded as a liaison between the community and government.
The presence of the bureaucracy is intended as a waitress for the public interest. Therefore, the bureaucracy requires neutral, value-free, impersonal attitude which upholds the common interest. However, in a democratic system, it implements the general election in determining the position of head of the area. Then, the regional head appoints that determines to the position of the officials of the bureaucracy, up comes the politicization of the bureaucracy.
Associated with the relationship between politics and bureaucracy, Frederickson said that the bureaucracy is very strong position in the political context because it has sources of power which are legitimate and legal. According to Peters and Mochtar Mas’oed Guys, as disclosed by Budi Setiono, there are four important sources of power possessed bureaucracy, which are the personification of the state, control of information and expertise, authority in decision making, political support, high social status and a permanent and stable institution. This is what causes the public bureaucracy is referred to as the single authoritarian institution.
The existence and role of the bureaucracy can cause disagreement. The first opinion says that the existence of the bureaucracy is because people want the bureaucracy to help communities meet their needs, as well as to achieve certain goals that it has set. The second opinion said that a ruler must be strong by the maid (apparatus) which are solid, strong, loyal and trustworthy. Therefore, there are different opinions on giving meaning to the bureaucratic organization, among others:
Bureaucracy gave a positive meaning when bureaucratic organization said to be a rational-legal organization that works efficiently and effectively. Bureaucracy is an organization that helps people in achieving its objectives effectively and efficiently. This meaning appears along with the emergence of Max Weber’s opinion about the big rational legal organization.
Bureaucracy gave a negative meaning when the bureaucratic organization is said to be filled with pathology (disease), the organization chubby, wasteful, inefficient and ineffective, corrupt, and others. Bureaucracy is the ruler tool to oppress the people, which means it must always be submissive and obedient to the ruler and people do not need to pay attention. Therefore, bureaucracy is viewed as beneficial to the people. Karl Marx and Hegel supports this negative sense.
Meaning Neutral (value free)
Overall state officials in the executive branch or any large-scale organization whose employees are paid by the government (the State). Bureaucracy is seen as the organization that runs the administrative, technical work on the life of the government (the State). Supporters of the neutral meaning are the generation of Martin M. Blau, and others.
Meanwhile, according to the politicization dictionary, Indonesian is defined as making the state (actions, ideas, and so on) are political. Also, it means to help move the things by their interests. Politicization of the bureaucracy means forming bureaucratic organizations which work and do (dutiful) in accordance with the political interests of the ruling. The politicization of the bureaucracy was on two sides; coming from the political parties that intervene in the bureaucracy or of the executive which politicize the bureaucracy’s interests (power) itself. The politicization of the bureaucracy intended to preserve power.
The politicization of the bureaucracy is the thing that makes the state of bureaucratic organizations work and act politically, as a result of their interest to make the bureaucracy as a means to pave the way for achieving certain goals. Because of bureaucratic as government organizations, there are a number of facilities, money/budget, human, and other infrastructure. Ways of politicization of bureaucracy are to recruit the head of the local work force in accordance with the interests of the regional head office, or known by the term political recruitment.
2. Literature Review
Political recruitment is the process of filling positions in political institutions, including political parties and the administration or bureaucracy by people who would exercise political power. Theory Almond and Powell political recruitment procedures are divided into two parts, namely:
Procedure closed means the recruitment carried out by the party elite who have the power to choose who the candidates are deemed feasible given position based on its skills and capacity to lead. So that this procedure is considered closed because the procedure is only determined by a handful of people. Open procedure means that every community has the right to choose future leaders in the country, as well as the announcement of the winner of the competition, is conducted openly and blatantly, known as direct, general, free and secret.
Recruitment is defined as a process to search, find and attract applicants to be employed, in the context of government organizations (bureaucrats). Furthermore, in terms of government bureaucracy that is the management of the Civil Service, recruitment officer, better known as the placement of someone is either an employee (staff) who have met the minimum requirements administratively, as well as officials in positions newly according to ability, the principle of seniority, as well as provisions, apply.
Recruitment system is based on the desire of the political elite to help capabilities officials seated in a certain position, which helps businesses are based on the ability of political relationships and family relationships, so you can easily consolidate power base and means for menghimpuan the amount of support. This system can be said to be a blend of comradeship which can be purchased by showing loyalty to be lifted on structures of power and higher positions, and less attention to the expertise or skills in executing his post.
Spoil System (comradeship/cronyism)
Spoil system is a system that is based on the official recruitment particular affiliate in a party. Spoil systems, a practice where a political party which won an election rewards their supporters and campaign workers by appointing them to government posts. The employees have to leave the office if their party loses the election. A change in the political party brings new officials for the higher posts with a political responsibility. Supporters of the spoil system mention that this type of systems leads to organization of an active party where loyal workers are given occupational rewards. On the other hand, there is a counter argument which states that spoil systems appoint employees based on the needs of the party without carefully considering their qualification and experience.
The system Koopsi
Koopsi system involves the recruitment of new people which come from the outside of the group or organization. Majority of the workers hired based on this system differs from others due to vision and mission which they bring to the organization.
Meryt system is often used as a reaction towards other types of recruitment including Spoil, Koopsi and Patronage. Thus, this system strictly emphasizes person’s skills and competencies which will be required for a particular job.
3. Result And Discussion
The regional head is very concerned to keep the whole bureaucratic apparatus thereunder loyalty to the head region. These conditions resulted in the bureaucracy which tended submissive and obedient to the head area rather than performs their functions professionally. The issue of recruitment to the positions that become full rights of regional heads is also a consideration of the bureaucratic apparatus to safeguard the interests of the regional head. From the side of the head region, recruitment of bureaucratic positions can not be separated from their calculations to the preservation of the three interests that have been mentioned earlier, namely survival, effective government, and the creation of loyal political machine.
The elections that were conducted in Medan during 2010. At that period Rahudman Harap, acting like a mayor during the period of bureaucratic apparatus that was structured through the series of activities. Rahudman Medan Harahp won the elections through the politicization of the bureaucracy.
This is followed by the means of recruitment. Indonesian recruitment system is considered as a patron-client system. Precisely, Indonesian bureaucracy system is known to be a patron-client. Career bureaucratic officials had no authority to deal with the political officials who become leaders. Particularly, it is important to mention that politicization of bureaucracy gives negative sense. Bureaucracy in the organization is often associated with wasteful, inefficient and ineffective characteristics. Bureaucracy is often considered as a ruler tool to oppress the people.
Bureaucracy is an important instrument in the country as a bridge between people and government. However, the strength of the role and function of bureaucracy often makes the rulers abusing bureaucracy for political ends, especially the perpetuation of power. The era of regional autonomy with direct regional head elections made the head of the region have the right to determine its bureaucratic officials in the region. Later, officials of the bureaucracy are also likely to be used for award of the tool in the contest general elections that followed for the next period. It is expressed as the politicization of the bureaucracy for winning the local elections.
The local elections Medan city became one example of the phenomenon of the politicization of the bureaucracy. Harahap Rahudman victory at the General Election of Medan in 2010 to form the politicization of the bureaucracy that causes power can be continued in the next period. This happens because of the positions of the existing bureaucracy has intervened before to follow the will of the political authorities in the city of Medan. Own bureaucratic officials to follow the will of the Mayor of Medan to keep the position or position in government institutions. The phenomenon of the politicization of the bureaucracy will give rise to a negative meaning of the bureaucracy should be the government’s tool to serve the people.
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